Elliptical Construction

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Elliptical atau Elipsis adalah penghilangan kata atau sejumlah kata dari suatu kalimat yang bertujuan agar kalimat menjadi lebih pendek dan lebih baik susunannya. Susunan Elipsis sering digunakan banyak orang baik dalam percakapan maupun dalam bentuk tulisan. Semua ini ditujukan untuk menyingkat kalimat dan memperindah susunan kalimat namun tidak merubah makna dan arti sama sekali. Bayangkan kalau kita membaca sebuah buku dan buku itu berisi kalimat-kalimat yang tidak perlu. Tentu kita akan bosan membacanya. Oleh karena itu, maka Susunan Elipsis ini penting untuk dipelajari.

1. POSITIVE ELLIPTIC

Apabila dalam sebuah kalimat positif kita mendapati predikat yang sama, maka kita sebaiknya menggunakan kata "too" atau "so" yang artinya "juga":

Perhatikan cara menggabungkan beberapa kalimat di bawah ini agar menjadi lebih singkat dan tersusun rapi, namun tidak merubah arti sama sekali.
  1. He is busy. I am busy
    (= He is busy and I am too)
    (= He is busy and so am I)
  2. Mary is beautiful. You are beautiful
    (= Mary is beautiful and you are too)
    (= Mary is beautiful and so are you)
  3. My brother can swim well. You can swim well
    (= My brother can swim well and you can too)
    (= My brother can swim well and so can you)
  4. Alex buys a new car. Henry buys a news car.
    (= Alex buys a new car and Henry does too)
    (= Alex buys a new car and so does Henry)
  5. Jack went to Bali yesterday. William went to Bali yesterday.
    (= Jack went to Bali yesterday and William did too)
    (= Jack went to Bali yesterday and so did William)
2. NEGATIVE ELLIPTIC

Apabila dalam sebuah kalimat negatif kita mendapati predikat yang sama, maka kita sebaiknya menggunakan kata "either" atau "neither" yang artinya "juga tidak":
  1. Ed doesn't like mango. George doesn't like mango.
    (= Ed doesn't like mango and George doesn't either)
    (= Ed doesn't like mango and neither does George )
  2. My father won't come there. I won't come there.
    (= My father won't come there and I won't either)
    (= My father won't come there and neither will I)
  3. She never comes here. He never comes here.
    (= She never comes here and he doesn't either)
    (= She never comes here and neither does he)
CATATAN

Ada beberapa adverbs of frequency yang dianggap negatif seperti:
  1. never
  2. seldom
  3. rarely
  4. few
  5. hardly
  6. barely
  7. scarely
  8. litlle
  9. dll
3. CONTRARY ELLIPTIC

Untuk susunan yang berlawanan, kita dapat menggunakan kata "but" yang artinya "tetapi":
  1. Stephanie is clever. Her sister isn't clever
    (= Stephanie is clever but her sister isn't)
  2. She does not have a pen. I have a pen.
    (= She does not have a pen but I do)
BEBERAPA TEMPAT TERJADINYA SUSUNAN ELIPSIS

1. Menghilangkan Subjek dan atau Auxiliary/Modal
  1. Mr. Hunt ate a piece of bread for breakfast and (he) drank a cup of coffee. (= kata "he" sebaiknya dihilangkan karena tidak perlu pengulangan subjek)
  2. My servant has swept the floor, (my servant has) washed the dishes, and (my servant has) cooked our lunch. (= "my servant has" selalu berulang-ulang. Oleh karena itu, sebaiknya dihilangkan)
  3. To save the time, you should clean the house and Mary (should) cook the meal.
2. Menghilangkan Predikat
  1. I work at school and my wife (works) at a bank.
  2. Jack will visit the church, while Ahmad (will visit) the mosque.
3. Menghilangkan Objek Langsung
  1. Why do you open (the door) and (you) close the door?

Either vs Neither

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Either dan Neither digunakan dengan auxiliary atau modal verb untuk menandakan persetujuan dalam negatif (Bandingkan dengan persetujuaan dalam kalimat affirmatif ketika kita memakai "Too"atau "So"). Perhatikan contoh kalimat-kalimat berikut ini:

Contoh:
  1. "I haven't been to France. I haven't either / Neither have I." ("I have been to France. I have too / So have I.")
  2. "I can't see the screen. I can't either / Neither can I."
Either digunakan dengan Kata Kerja Negatif; Neither digunakan dengan Kata Kerja Afirmatif.

e.g vs i.e = Contohnya

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Untuk membuat penjelasan kita menjadi lebih mudah dimengerti, kita biasanya membutuhkan serangkan contoh. Dalam Bahasa Inggris, kita sering melihat tulisan dengan menggunakan e.g dan ada juga dengan i.e. Apakah perbedaannya?
  • e.g. = Berasal dari Bahasa Latin (exempli gratia) yang artinya 'for example'.
Contoh:
  1. A one-way journey, e.g. London � Frankfurt
  2. You should eat more food that contains a lot of fibre, e.g. vegetables, fruit and bread.
  • i.e. = Juga berasal dari Bahasa Latin (id est) yang digunakan dalam tulisan sebelum informasi yang memberikan penjelasan tentang kata sebelumnya.
Contoh:
  1. Applications are invited from university graduates, i.e. people with a first degree or higher.
  2. The hotel is closed during low season, i.e. from October to March.

Disjunct

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Disjunct adalah jenis Kata Keterangan (Adverbs) yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan informasi yang dianggap tidak penting dalam sebuah kalimat, namun kata ini justru menunjukkan perilaku pembicara atau penulis. Untuk lebih jelasnya, silahkan ikuti terus penjelasan di bawah ini.

Contoh:
  • Fortunately, we managed to get there on time.
Kata "Fortunately" menunjukkan bahwa pembicara sangat senang dengan apa yang sudah dilakukannya.

Secara umum, istilah "disjunct" digunakan untuk menunjukkan elemen kalimat yang tidak terintegrasi secara penuh ke dalam struktur sebuah kalimat. Disjunct biasanya berada di awal atau akhir kalimat dan dipisahkan dengan tanda baca koma (,).

Contoh Lain:
  1. Honestly, I couldn't believe it.
  2. Unfortunately, Kim has had to leave us.
  3. Honestly, I didn't do it.
  4. Fortunately for you, I have it right here.
  5. In my opinion, the green one is better.
  6. Frankly, Martha, I don't give a hoot.

Direct and Indirect Object

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Setiap kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja transitif, maka pasti mempunyai Objek. Ingatlah bahwa kadang-kadang dalam 1 kalimat, terdapat 2 objek untuk 1 predikat. Kedua objek tersebut disebut dengan objek langsung dan tak langsung. Direct Object adalah penderita langsung dari suatu tindakan di dalam satu kalimat. Contohnya "He hit the ball." Namun, kita harus berhati-hati untuk membedakan antara DIRECT OBJECT dan OBJECT COMPLEMENT:
  • They named their daughter Natasha.
Dalam kalimat ini, "daughter" adalah DIRECT OBJECT dan "Natasha" adalah OBJECT COMPLEMENT, yang menggambarkan atau memberikan penjelasan dari direct object-nya.

Indirect object mengindentifikasikan untuk siapa tindakan tersebut dibuat. Direct object dan Indirect object adalah orang, tempat, atau sesuatu yang berbeda. Direct object dalam kalimat berikut ini adalah yang dicetak tebal. Indirect Objek yang bercetak miring.
  • The instructor gave his students A's.
  • Grandfather left Rosalita and Raoul all his money.
  • Jo-Bob sold me her boat.
Bersamaan dengan itu, kata me (atau sama dengan kata lainnya, yaitu him, us, them) biasanya berperan menjadi Direct Object.
  • Bless me/her/us!
  • Call me/him/them if you have questions.
Untuk menandai Objek langsung dan tidak langsung sangatlah mudah. Perhatikan ilustrasi berikut ini:

Misalnya:
  • Andi membawakan saya sebuah buku.
Pada kalimat diatas, predikat kalimat tersebut adalah membawakan. "Membawakan apa?" = Buku. Maka, "buku" adalah OBJEK LANGSUNG (DIRECT OBJECT) dan "saya" adalah OBJEK TIDAK LANGSUNG (INDIRECT OBJECT)

Indirect Object dapat digunakan dalam beberapa cara.
  • Give some money to John.
  • Give some money to him.
  • Give it to John.
  • Give it to him.
  • Give John some money.
  • Give him some money.
  • Give John it. (Tidak biasa dipakai)
  • Give him it. (Tidak biasa dipakai)
Perhatikan cara menempatkan 2 objek berikut ini:
  • Lend me some money. (Lend some money to me)
  • Bring me a cup of coffee. (Bring a cup of coffee to me)
  • Get me a cup of coffee. (Get a cup of coffee for me)
  • Make me a cup of coffee. (Make a cup of coffee for me)
  • Ask him a question. (Ask a question of him)
  • Tell her a story. (Tell a story to her)
Pola-pola untuk menempatkan Direct Object dan Indirect Object:

Pola A
  • I gave him an apple.
  • I bought her a car.
  • I asked him a question.
Pola B
  • I gave an apple to him.
  • I explained it to him.
Pola C
  • I bought a car for her.
  • I open the door for her.
Kata kerja untuk pola A dan B adalah:

write, read, show, teach, tell, sell, send, lend, bring, take, pass, give

Kata kerja untuk pola A dan C adalah:

buy, get, make, find, do, bake, cash, save

Kata Kerja untuk Pola A saja.

ask, cost, charge, wish

Kata kerja untuk Pola B saja.

explain, announce, describe, introduce, mention, prove, repeat, say, speak, report

(Ketika dipakai dengan for, berarti artinya sama dengan "untuk kepentingan")

Kata kerja untuk Pola C saja

open, answer, close, change, pronounce, prescribe

Kata kerja untuk semua pola

sing

kata Kerja yang tidak dapat dipakai oleh semua pola. (Kata Kerja Intransitif - Kata kerja yang tidak membutuhkan objek)

eat, sleep, talk, walk, dll.

Determiner

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Determiner adalah kata yang diletakkan di depan kata benda yang fungsinya adalah untuk menjelaskan kata benda tersebut. Dalam Bahasa Inggris banyak kita jumpai Determiner seperti yang akan kami jelaskan di bawah ini:

Di bawah ini adalah Kelompok-kelompok Determiner:
  • Definite and Indefinite articles
the, a, an
  • Demonstratives
this, that, these, those
  • Possessives
my, your, his, her, its, our, their
  • Quantifiers
a few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc.
  • Numbers
one, ten, thirty, etc.
  • Distributive
all, both, half, either, neither, each, every
  • Difference words
other, another
  • Question words
Which, what, whose
  • Defining words
which, whose

Derivatives

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Derivatives adalah pembentukan kata baru dari kata yang sudah ada. Namun tidak semua kata yang telah ditambahkan imbuhan langsung berubah menjadi kata lain. Ada juga kata yang tetap kata benda walaupun telah diberikan imbuhan, dsb.

Mengapa kita harus memahami materi ini? Apakah materi ini penting untuk dipelajari?. Dan masih banyak lagi pertanyaan-pertanyaan lainnya yang semuanya meragukan tentang pentingnya materi ini untuk dipelajari.



Sekali lagi kami tegaskan bahwa materi ini sangat penting untuk dipahami sebab dalam percakapan maupun dalam tulisan, kita dihadapkan pada aturan yang standard dalam Bahasa Inggris. Mari kita ingat-ingat pelajaran-pelajaran terdahulu, misalnya kita akan membandingkan 1 benda dengan benda yang lainnya. Dan kita tahu betul, kalau kita ingin melakukan hal tersebut, yang dapat dibuat dalam tingkat perbandingan adalah hanya kata sifat atau kata keterangan. Nah, pada saat itu, kita berhadapan dengan kata benda, misalnya "beauty". Kata ini tidak dapat kita buat dalam tingkat perbandingan. Agar kata tersebut dapat kita buat dalam tingkat perbandingan, maka kata "beauty" harus kita ubah dulu dalam bentuk kata sifat. Nah untuk membentuk kata benda menjadi kata sifat itulah, kita perlu belajar Derivatives.

Semoga ilustrasi di atas cukup buat kita memahami betapa pentingnya kita belajar Derivatives.

Berikut ini adalah aturan dalam membentuk Derivatives:


NOUN SUFFIXES (MEMBENTUK KATA BENDA DENGAN MENAMBAHKAN AKHIRAN)


Untuk membentuk Kata Benda dari kata yang ada dapat dilakukan dengan menambahkan akhiran pada kata tersebut, sehingga membentuk kata baru. Beberapa akhiran yang dapat ditambahkan pada beberapa kata diantaranya adalah: ness, ty, hood, ian, cy, er, or, ship, ist, ment, tion, ance, t, y, sion, action, al, se, iture, ant, ent, ce dll

Asal Kata
Derivatives
Arti
Happy (Adj)
Good (Adj)
Happiness
Goodness
Kebahagiaan
Ke
baikan
Dense (Noun)
Electric (Nouns)
Density
Electricity
Kepadatan
Ke
listrikan
Child (Noun)
Neighbour (Noun)
Childhood
Neighbourhood
Masa Anak-anak
Lingkungan
Library (Noun)
Comedy (Noun)
Librarian
Comedian
Pustakawan
Pelawak
Pregnant (Noun)
President (Noun)
Pregnancy
Presidency
Kehamilan
Ke
presidenan
Drive (Verb)
Record (Verb)
Driver
Recorder

Supir
Alat Rekam

Act (verb)
Detect (Verb)
Actor
Detector
Aktor
Alat untuk mendeteksi
Friend (Noun)
Relation (Noun)
Friendship
Relationship
Persahabatan
Hubungan
Piano (Noun)
Art (Noun)
Pianist
Artist
Pemain Piano
Artis
Develop (Verb)
Manage (Verb)
Development
Management
Perkembangan
Manajemen
Promote (Verb)
Compose (Verb)
Promotion
Composition
Promosi
Komposisi
Assist (Verb)
Remember (Verb)
Assistance
Rememberance
Bantuan
Ingatan
See (Verb)
Fly (Verb)
Sight
Flight
Pandangan
Penerbangan
Deliver (Verb)
Discover (Verb)
Delivery
Discovery
Pengiriman
Pe
nemuan
dll

Contoh dalam kalimat:

  • He is very handsome, but his handsomeness doesn't make him proud of it.
  • They're hostile, and they have decided to stop their hostility.
  • Her pregnancy must be checked.
  • The government develop the arrangement of the density of inhabitants.

ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES (MEMBENTUK KATA SIFAT DENGAN MENAMBAHKAN AKHIRAN)


Untuk membentuk kata sifat, kita dapat menambahkan kata-kata berikut ini: full, ish, less, like, ous, y, cy, al, ic, ary, ed, an, able, ible, ive, dll.

Asal Kata
Derivatives
Arti
Hope (Noun)
Sorrow (Noun)
Hopeful
Sorrowful
Penuh Harapan
Sedih
Boy (Noun)
Blue (Noun)
Boyish
Blueish
Kekanak-kanakan
Kebiru-biruan
Care (Noun/Verb)
Help (Noun/Verb)
Careless
Helpless
Ceroboh
Tidak ada lagi bantuan
Woman (Noun)
Man (Noun)
Womanlike
Manlike
Seperti wanita
Seperti Pria
Sun (Noun)
Cloud (Noun)

Sunny
Cloudy

Cerah
Mendung
Danger (Noun)
Continue (Verb)
Dangerous
Continuous
Bahaya
Terus Menerus
dll

Contoh dalam kalimat:

  • She is beautiful, and her beauty has made her proud.
  • Don't be careless!
  • It's sunny today.

VERB AFFIXES (PEMBENTUKAN KATA KERJA DENGAN MENAMBAHKAN IMBUHAN)


Untuk membentuk kata kerja, kita dapat menambahkan kata-kata berikut ini: en..., diss..., mis..., re..., ...ize, ...ate, in..., a..., ...fy dll

Asal Kata
Derivatives
Arti
Danger (Noun)
Courage (Noun)
Endanger
Encourage
Membahayakan
Memberanikan diri
Like (Verb)
Agree (Verb)
Dislike
Disagree
Tidak Suka
Tidak Setuju
Understand (Verb)
Carry (Verb)
Misunderstand
Miscarry
Salah Paham
Salah Bawa
Tell (Verb)
Check (Verb)
Retell
Recheck
Menceritakan kembali/ulang
Mengecek kembali/ulang
Memory (Noun)
Summary (Noun)
Memorize
Summarize
Mengingat
Menyimpulkan
dll

Contoh dalam kalimat:

  • They misunderstand what I mean.
  • You have to retell the story.
  • My teacher asked me to shorten the myth.

BONUS SPESIAL DARI ISMAIL


Untuk membentuk kata yang berarti negatif, kita dapat menambahkan un.., dis..., in..., ir..., im..., non-..., mis...

  • unhappy
  • unusual
  • dislike
  • disagree
  • incomplete
  • indirect
  • irregular
  • irrasional
  • impolite
  • immortal
  • non-stop
  • non-member
  • misunderstand
  • misspell

Untuk menunjukkan orang yang mengerjakan sesuatu, tambahkan er, or, ant, ent

  • driver
  • actor
  • assistant
  • expedient

Ada juga pembentukan Adverb dari Adjective dengan menambahkan ...ly, ...wise, ...ward

  • angrily
  • quickly
  • likewise
  • sidewise
  • backward
  • outward

Denomical Adjectives

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Denominal adjectives adalah kata sifat yang berasal dari Kata Benda. Kata Sifat (Adjectives) tidak hanya kata sifat yang kita ketahui selama ini seperti beautiful, pretty, dll, namun dapat juga berasal dari kata-kata lainnya dan salah satunya adalah kata benda yang akan kita bahas di bawah ini.

Contoh:
  1. A mathematical puzzle. (a puzzle based on mathematics)
  2. A biological experiment. (an experiment in biology)
  3. A wooden boat. (a boat made of wood)
Denominal Adjectives dapat juga dibentuk dengan mengambil Kebangsaan:
  1. A Russian lady. (a lady who comes from Russia)
  2. German goods. (goods produced in Germany).

Dangling Modifiers

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Dangling modifier adalah sebuah frase atau klausa yang secara grammatical tidak berhubungan dengan apa yang dimaksudkan. Masalah yang paling umum adalah dengan Adjective Participial Phrase, khususnya ketika berada di awal kalimat.

Masalah-masalah dengan Dangling Modifiers

Ada 2 (dua) jenis masalah dengan Dangling Modifiers:
  1. Pronoun sering tidak digunakan, sehingga frase pembuka kalimat tidak menjelaskan kata-kata yang mengikutinya.
    - Tidak Jelas: Running across the street, the bus left.
  2. Frase atau kata dalam sebuah kalimat terlalu jauh dari kata yang menjelaskannya.
    - Tidak Jelas
    : A dependable car, the family decided to buy the mini-van.
Mengatasi Masalah Dangling Modifiers

Ada 2 cara mengatasi Dangling Modifiers.
  1. Induk kalimat dapat dibuat berdiri sendiri. Gunakan kata penghubung sebagai Anak Kalimat.
    - Tidak Jelas: Running down the street, the house was on fire.
    - Revisi: When the man ran down the street, the house was on fire.

  2. Participial Construction dapat dibuat berdiri sendiri sedangkan Induk Kalimat menjelaskannya sehingga seolah-olah kata yang dijelaskannya itu berada di awal kalimat.
    - Revisi: Running down the street, the man saw the house was on fire.

Countable Nouns

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Countable Noun adalah kata benda yang dapat dimodifikasi dengan angka dan dapat dijadikan bentuk tunggal dan bentuk jamak. Apabila kita bentuk menjadi jamak, kita tinggal menambahkan s atau es di akhir kata bendanya. dan dapat digunakan dengan kata-kata seperti every, each, several, most, dll. Countable Nouns terdiri dari benda, orang, tempat, dll.

Contoh:
  1. She saw seven cows in the garden
  2. There is a cow in the garden.
  3. Every cow is an animal.
Beberapa Kata seperti time, beauty, fire, death, gossip dapat digunakan sebagai "Countable Nouns" dan "Uncountable Nouns".

Contoh:
  1. How much time did it take for you to drive to school?. (Uncountable Nouns)
  2. How many times did you take the test before you passed?. (Countable Nouns)
  3. They had a death in the family. (Countable Nouns)
  4. Death is a tragic thing. (Uncountable Nouns)
Untuk membentuk jamak dari Countable Nouns, kita dapat menambahkan kata-kata seperti:
  • Many
  • Some
  • Any
  • Few
  • A lot of
  • No
  • Dll
Contoh:
  1. How many papers do you have to write?
  2. Some dogs can be dangerous.
  3. I don't use any computers at work.
  4. There are few elephants in England.
  5. No computers were bought last week.
  6. A lot of computers were reported broken the week before

Could Have

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Could merupakan salah satu Modals dalam Grammar Bahasa Inggris. Banyak sekali fungsi dan kegunaan kata ini. Apabila kata ini ditambahkan dengan kata lainnya, tentu akan mempunyai fungsi yang berbeda. Ikuti petunjuk di bawah ini untuk penjelasan yang lebih lengkap.

Gunakan 'could have' untuk membicarakan sesuatu yang sebenarnya mampu dikerjakan oleh seseorang, namun sayang tidak dilakukannya.
  1. I could have gone to Oxford University but I preferred Harvard.
  2. She could have married him but she didn't want to.
  3. They could have bought a house here 20 years ago but chose not to.
Frase ini juga sering digunakan sebagai bentuk kritik.
  1. You could have phoned me to let me know.
  2. They could have helped me instead of just sitting there.
  3. I could have done more to help you. Sorry.
Kita bisa memakai 'couldn't have' untuk menjelaskan suatu pekerjaan yang tidak sanggup untuk dikerjakan.
  1. I couldn't have managed without you.
  2. I couldn't have got the job. He was always going to appoint his nephew.
  3. I couldn't have enjoyed myself more. Thank you for a lovely day.
Kita bisa menggunakan 'could have' untuk berspekulasi. (Bisa juga memakai 'may have' atau 'might have' dalam situasi seperti ini.)
  1. She could have taken the earlier train.
  2. Simon could have told her.
  3. They could have overheard what we said.
Kita memakai 'can have' untuk berspekulasi tentang apa yang telah terjadi tetapi hanya dalam kalimat pertanyaan dan negatif. Ungkapan seperti ini biasanya dilengkapi dengan kata 'hardly', 'never' dan 'only'.
  1. Can she have forgotten about our meeting?
  2. He can't have seen us.
  3. They can hardly have thought that I was not interested in the job.
Kita juga memakai 'could have' untuk berspekulasi tentang sesuatu yang tidak terjadi di masa lampau.
  1. You could have broken your neck, jumping out the window like that.
  2. He could have hurt somebody, throwing a bottle out of the window like that.
  3. I could have done well in my exam if I'd worked harder.
Kita memakai 'could have' untuk menjelaskan keadaan sekarang yang tidak terjadi.
  1. I could have been earning a lot as an accountant but the work was just too boring.
  2. He could have been Prime Minister now but he got involved in a big financial scandal.
  3. They could have been the market leaders now if they had taken his advice

Copula Verbs

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Copula atau dikenal juga dengan Copular Verbs adalah kata kerja yang menghubungkan antara Subjek dengan Komplemen. Copula Verbs lebih umum disebut dengan "Linking Verbs". Linking Verbs tidak menggambarkan sebuah aksi atau tindakan. Untuk lebih jelasnya, silahkan ikuti penjelasan di bawah ini

RUMUS:

Subject + linking verb + Informasi tentang Subjek

Contoh:
  1. That food smells nice. ('Smells' menghubungkan subjek dengan kata sifat yang menjelaskannya.)
Beberapa kata kerja selalu berfungsi menjadi Linking Verbs karena tidak menggambarkan suatu aksi atau tindakan. Sedangkan kata kerja lainnya dapat menjadi linking verbs, dan dapat juga tidak (Kata Kerja Aksi-Action Verbs), tergantung dari kalimatnya.

Kata Kerja Yang Selalu Menjadi Linking Verbs:
  1. to be (is, am, are, was, were, has been, have been, had been, is being, are being, was being, will have been, etc.)
  2. to become (become, becomes, became, has become, have become, had become, will become, will have become, etc.)
  3. to seem (seemed, seeming, seems, has seemed, have seemed, had seemed, is seeming, are seeming, was seeming, were seeming, will seem)
Contoh:
  1. The dog became thin after his surgery.
Kata Kerja Yang Dapat Menjadi Linking Verbs atau Menjadi Kata Kerja Aksi.

Contoh:
  • look
  • smell
  • appear
  • prove
  • sound
  • feel
  • remain
  • taste
  • grow
Contoh:
  • John appeared uninjured after the accident. (John tidak apa-apa setelah kecelakaan)
Pada contoh kalimat di atas, kita dapat menggantikan kata "appeared" dengan "was" dan makna kalimat tersebut tidak akan berubah. "Appear" yang kita gunakan disini berfungsi sebagai Linking Verbs. Sedangkan kalimat di bawah ini:
  • Before I could leave, John appeared. (Sebelum saya pergi, John muncul)
Pada contoh kalimat di atas, "Appear" berfungsi sebagai Action Verb.

Connecting Idea

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Dalam penggunaannya, apalagi dalam sebuah percakapan atau tulisan, terkadang kita sering menggunakan kalimat majemuk, yaitu suatu pernyataan yang terdiri dari beberapa kalimat. Kalimat-kalimat ini bisa saja saling menjelaskan atau berlawanan dan lain sebagainya. Untuk menghindari kesalahpahaman pendengar atau pembaca, maka kita perlu menggunakan "Connector" seperti dijelaskan di bawah ini:

1- Connecting ideas with AND:

Ketika kita ingin menggabungkan 2 item dalam sebuah kalimat (misalnya benda), maka kita tidak perlu menggunakan koma, namun apabila lebih dari 2, maka gunakanlah koma. Untuk item yang lebih dari 2, penggunaan koma sebelum kata "and" bisa digunakan, bisa juga tidak.

Namun apabila kita menghubungkan 2 kalimat, maka gunakan koma sebelum "and". Perhatikan dengan baik contoh-contoh kalimat di bawah ini:
  • They saw a cat and a mouse.
  • He saw a cat, a mouse, a man, and a woman.
  • I opened the door, walked into the room, and sat down at my desk
  • Their flag is red, yellow, and black.
  • I saw a bird, and she saw a sun.
  • I saw a bird. She saw a sun.
2- Connecting ideas with BUT and OR:
  • I went to bed but couldn�t sleep.
  • Is this a book or an exercise book?
  • Did you order coffee, tea, or milk?
  • I dropped the vase, but it didn�t break.
  • I dropped the vase. But it didn�t break. (Juga Boleh)
  • Do we have class on Monday, or is Monday holiday?
3- Connecting ideas with SO:
  • I frequently use the e-mail, so I rarely write letters. We aren�t in the paper age anymore.
4- Using auxiliary verbs after but and and
  • He doesn�t like coffee, but his wife does.
  • She likes tea, but he doesn�t.
  • He isn�t here, but she is.
  • She won�t be here, but her husband will.
  • They have learned Spanish, but she hasn�t.
  • He likes Mathematics, and she does too.
  • I don�t like some music, and she doesn�t either.
  • I won�t go downtown, and he won�t either.
  • They didn't pass the exam, but she did.
5- Using AND + TOO, SO, EITHER, NEITHER:
  • She likes milk, and he does too.
  • She likes milk, and so does he.
  • She doesn�t like milk, and he doesn�t either.
  • She doesn�t like milk, and neither does he.
  • Do you like Math? So do I.
6- Connecting ideas with BECAUSE:
  • He called his friend because he needed her.
  • = Because he needed her, he called her.
7- Connecting ideas with even though/although:
  • Even though (although) I was thirsty, I didn�t drink.
  • = I didn�t drink even though (although) I was thirsty.

Conjunctions

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Salah satu dari part of Speech yang perlu kita pelajari adalah Conjunctions. Conjunctions (Kata Sambung) adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menghubungkan kata-kata, ungkapan atau kalimat dan sebagainya. Kata Sambung yang paling umum digunakan dalam Bahasa Inggris adalah "and", "or" dan "but".

Contoh:
  1. Jamie, Adam and Lee arranged to meet by The Bull at 7 o'clock.
    (Conjunction "and" menghubungkan "Jamie", "Adam" + "Lee")
  2. It is a small but practical kitchen.
    (Conjunction "but" menghubungkan "small" + "practical")
  3. The manager or his secretary will notify you when the report is ready.
    (Conjunction "or" menghubungkan "manager" + "secretary")
PEMBAGIAN CONJUNCTION

Konjunction terbagi menjadi 2 kelompok utama yaitu:

1. COORDINATING CONJUNCTION

Yaitu menghubungkan kalimat-kalimat yang sederajat. Artinya kalimat yang satu tidak membutuhkan kalimat yang lainnya dan andaikan kalimat itu berdiri sendiri pun, tanpa adanya conjunction, maka makna kalimat tersebut sudah dapat dipahami dengan baik.

Conjunction jenis ini terbagi lagi menjadi:

a. Cumulative (Menunjukkan Penambahan)


Conjunction yang sering dipakai pada golongan ini adalah and, both...and, also, as well as, no less than, not only...but also, dsb

Contoh:
  1. You and I will go to Bali tomorrow
    (kalimat aslinya adalah "you will go to Bali tomorrow" dan " I will go to Bali tomorrow". Maka kalimat seperti ini dapat digabungkan seperti contoh tersebut)
  2. He is both an actor and a director
  3. He is clever and you are also
  4. He as well as you is guilty
    (be yang dipakai adalah "is" bukan "are". Silahkan pelajari kembali mengenai hal ini pada topik "Concordance/Agreement")
  5. He no less than you will be punished.
  6. Mr. Anderson is not only accused, but also convicted.
b. Alternative (Menunjukkan Pilihan)

Conjunction yang dipakai pada jenis ini adalah either...or, neither...nor, or, else, otherwise

Contoh:
  1. You can eat either the red apple or the green one.
    (Kamu boleh memakan salah satu apel yang berwarna merah ataupun yang berwarna hijau)
  2. You can eat neither the red apple nor the green one.
    (Kamu tidak boleh memakan apel yang berwarna merah ataupun yang berwarna hijau. Kalimat ini sama dengan " You can't eat both the red apple and the green one.")
  3. You or William is right.
c. Adversative (Menunjukkan Pertentangan)

Conjunction yang sering dipakai adalah but, still, yet, nevertheless, however, whereas, while

Contoh:
  1. Mrs. Henry is generous but her husband isn't.
  2. She is very wealthy still she isn't contented.
  3. He is very clever, nevertheless he often makes mistakes.
  4. I'd like to go; however, I haven't got time.
d. Illative (Menunjukkan Kesimpulan)

Conjunction yang dipakai adalah therefore, so, so then, then, for

Contoh:
  1. My sister was ill, therefore, she couldn't go to school yesterday
  2. It's time to go; so, let's start
  3. If you make mistake, then you must admit it.
  4. It is going to rain; for the barometer is falling
2. SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION

Yaitu kata sambung yang menghubungkan antara anak kalimat dan induk kalimat. Artinya jika kita tidak menggunakan kata sambung, maka salah satu kalimat tidak dapat dimengerti maksudnya apabila ia berdiri sendiri.

Conjunction jenis ini terbagi lagi menjadi:

a. Apposition (Keterangan Tambahan)
  1. He said that he could pick me up
  2. Sean promised that he would tell me the truth
b. Cause and Effect (Hubungan Sebab Akibat)
  1. He could not pass the exam because he was lazy
  2. I will succeed to pass the exam since I have studied hard
c. Impact (Pengaruh atau Akibat)
  1. This coffee is too hot that I cannot drink it
  2. He ran too fast that he made himself exhausted
d. Purpose (Maksud dan Tujuan)
  1. I bought a lot of books that I can prepare myself to pass the exam
  2. You have to study hard in order that you can pass the exam
e. Condition (Syarat)
  1. You will pass the exam if you study hard
  2. I will come to your house provided that I am well enough
f. Concession (Pernyataan Mengalah)
  1. He kept working hard even though he was very tired
  2. She will probably fail however much she may try
g. Comparison (Perbandingan)
  1. Mr. William is as tall as Mr. Robert
  2. You are more beautiful than my girlfriend
h. Manner (Taraf atau Cara)
  1. The plane hasn't landed yet as far as I know
  2. Men will reap as they sow
i. Time (Waktu)
  1. You can sit on my seat while I stand
  2. I will be around you as long as I live
CATATAN TAMBAHAN
  • Conjunctions secara normal tidak akan pernah menimbulkan kesalahan serius, namun penulis kadangkala bingung untuk menempatkan koma sebelum Conjunction. Tidak ada peraturan yang mengatur tentang itu seperti "Jangan letakkan koma sebelum "and", dll.
  • Peraturannya adalah jangan letakkan koma sebelum Conjunction ketika conjunction tersebut berada sebelum unsur kalimat terakhir dalam sebuah urutan yang sederhana.
Contoh:
  1. She went to the shop for eggs, milk and butter. (BENAR)
    (tidak perlu ada koma sebelum "and")
  2. It is a large but friendly dog. (BENAR)
    (Ini adalah sebuah urutan untuk "dog". tidak perlu ada koma sebelum "but".)
  3. Jamie, Adam and Lee arranged to meet at The Bull. (BENAR)
    (Urutan Orang; tidak perlu ada koma sebelum "and")
  4. Carl, David, and Sarah were all witnesses. (SALAH)
    (Urutan Orang; tidak perlu ada koma sebelum "and")
  • Namun, pada waktu tertentu, mungkin akan lebih tepat kita menggunakan koma dengan Conjunction pada sebuah urutan yang bersifat sederhana. Hal ini mungkin bertujuan untuk menghindarkan kebingungan orang lain dan membuat agar susunan nampak lebih rapi.
Contoh:
  1. The news will be shown after Dangermouse, and Rug Rats.
    (Orang lain tidak dapat memikirkan bahwa "Dangermouse and Rug Rats" adalah sebuah acara TV.)
  2. The train will stop at Watford, Harrow, Pinner, Watford, and Bushey.
    ("Watford and Bushey" bisa saja merupakan 1 tempat, seperti "Bath and Wells".)
  3. The emblem is an amalgamation of the British and Irish flags, the Stars and Stripes, and the Hammer and Sickle.
    (Kata "and" muncul berulang kali pada contoh ini. Koma sebelum "and" memudahkan pembaca untuk mengerti maksud kalimat tersebut.)
CATATAN:

MEMULAI KALIMAT DENGAN CONJUNCTION

Dulu, ada sebuah pelajaran bahwa kalimat itu tidak boleh dimulai dengan sebuah kata sambung (Conjunction). Tetapi sekarang hal itu boleh-boleh saja dilakukan.
  1. I was certain he did it for the money. But, having read his diary, I have a new theory.
Yang paling sering berada di awal kalimat adalah "And" dan "But" dan diikuti dengan koma. Namun pemakaiannya jangan terlalu sering.

CONJUNCTION DENGAN KOMA

Ketika 2 kalimat sederhana disambungkan dengan sebuah Conjunction, harus diawali dengan koma.

Contoh:
  1. Our team was given 2 minutes' notice, but theirs had been training for weeks. (BENAR)
  2. I have spoken to Sarah, and she has confirmed the delivery date. (BENAR)
  3. I have spoken to Sarah, and confirmed the delivery date. (SALAH)
  4. We eventually found the cave, but Jack was not there. (BENAR)
  5. We built the hut in an hour and then painted it. (BENAR)
CATATAN

KALIMAT MAJEMUK ?

Conjunction yang menggabungkan 2 bagian kalimat majemuk harus diawali dengan koma.
  1. I love milk. ( Kalimat Normal)
  2. I cannot drink it when it is warm.(Kalimat Normal)
  3. I love milk, but I cannot drink it when it is warm. (Kalimat Majemuk)
CONJUNCTION DAN TITIK KOMA (;)

Ketika sebuah kata sambung menggabungkan kalimat, maka harus didahului dengan koma. Tetapi jika salah satu atau kedua kalimat tersebut sudah mengandung/ memiliki koma di dalamnya, maka gunakan titik koma sebagai pengganti koma sebelum Conjunction yang kita pakai.

Contoh:
  1. In the '60s, there were dozens of buzzards along the 7-mile trek; but, due to the decline in vermin, only 2 adults live in the area at present.
  2. Mark, Dawn and Sally adore boiled spare ribs; but Julia, a staunch vegetarian, leaves the room when they are on the menu.

Conditional Sentences

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Conditional Sentences atau kalimat pendandaian terdiri dari dua jenis, yaitu real (nyata) dan unreal (tidak nyata). Pengandaian nyata adalah bentuk pengandaian dimana pengandaian tersebut dapat menjadi kenyataan, sedangkan pengandaian tidak nyata adalah bentuk pengandaian yang tidak mungkin akan jadi kenyataan karena beberapa sebab seperti dijelaskan di bawah ini:

Conditional Sentences terbagi-bagi lagi seperti akan kami jelaskan di bawah ini:

PRESENT CONDITIONALS

Present Real Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present ...]
  • [... Simple Present ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]
KEGUNAAN

Present Real Conditional digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang apa yang secara normal Anda lakukan dalam situasi kehidupan normal.

Contoh:
  • If I go to a friend's house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers.
  • When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.
  • If the weather is nice, she walks to work.
  • Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time.
  • I read if there is nothing on TV.
  • A: What do you do when it rains?
    B: I stay at home.
  • A: Where do you stay if you go to Sydney?
    B: I stay with my friends near the harbor.
If / When

"if" dan "when" digunakan dalam Present Real Conditional. "if" digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang sesuatu yang jarang terjadi, sedangkan "when" digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang kejadian yang sudah biasa atau sering terjadi.

Contoh:
  • When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.
    I regularly have days off from work.
  • If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.
    I rarely have days off from work.
Present Unreal Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]
  • [... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]
USE

Present Unreal Conditional digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang apa yang akan terjadi dalam situasi imajenasi (mengandai-andai).

Contoh:
  • If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.
  • She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't have much money.
  • I would read more if I didn't watch so much TV.
  • Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.
  • If they worked harder, they would earn more money.
  • A: What would you do if you won the lottery?
    B: I would buy a house.
  • A: Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.?
    B: I would live in Seattle.
PENGECUALIAN If I were ...

Dalam Present Unreal Conditional, bentuk "was" tidak digunakan. Gunakanlah "were" sebagai gantinya untuk semua subjek. Namun, dalam percakapan sehari-hari, "was" sering digunakan.

Contoh:
  • If he were French, he would live in Paris.
  • If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.
  • I would play basketball if I were taller.
  • I would buy that computer if it were cheaper.
  • I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. Not Correct (But often said in conversation.)
PENTING, HANYA GUNAKAN "If"

Hanya kata "if" digunakan dalam Present Unreal Conditional karena kita sedang membicarakan sesuatu yang tidak nyata atau hanya sebatas imajenasi belaka. "When" tidak bisa digunakan.

Contoh:
  • I would buy that computer when it were cheaper. Not Correct
  • I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. Correct

Conditional Dengan Modals

Ada beberapa Modals yang digunakan dalam Conditional seperti tersebut di bawah ini:
  1. would + can = could
  2. would + shall = should
  3. would + may = might
Kata "can," "shall" dan "may" tidak dapat digunakan dengan "would." Kata ini digunakan dalam bentuk khusus.

Contoh:
  • If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. Not Correct
  • If I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. Correct
  • If she had time, she would may go to the party. Not Correct
  • If she had time, she might go to the party. Correct
Kata "could," should," "might" dan "ought to" sudah termasuk dalam conditional, jadi Anda tidak perlu menggabungkannya dengan "would."

Contoh:
  • If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. Not Correct
  • If I had more time, I could exercise after work. Correct
  • If he invited you, you really would should go. Not Correct
  • If he invited you, you really should go. Correct
PAST CONDITIONALS
Past Real Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If / When ... Simple Past ..., ... Simple Past ...]
  • [... Simple Past... if / when ... Simple Past ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Past Real Conditional menggambarkan apa yang biasanya Anda lakukan dalam waktu tertentu di situasi nyata kehidupan Anda. Hal ini menjelaskan bahwa kebiasaan Anda tadi telah berubah dan Anda biasanya tidak lakukan akhir-akhir ini.

Contoh:
  • If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.
  • When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time off.
  • If the weather was nice, she often walked to work. Now, she usually drives.
  • Jerry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.
  • A: What did you usually do when it rained?
    B: I usually stayed at home.
CATATAN

Bentuk "used to" menggambarkan suatu ide bahwa sesuatu yang merupakan kebiasaan lama telah berhenti dan tidak lagi dilakukan di masa lalu. Bentuk ini bisanya digunakan dalam kalimat Past Real Conditional untuk menekankan bahwa dulunya itu adalah kebiasaan.

Contoh:
  • If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.
  • When I had a day off from work, I used to go to the beach. Now, I never get time off.
  • If the weather was nice, she used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.
  • Jerry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.
  • A: What did you usually do when it rained?
    B: I used to stay at home.
If / When

"if" dan "when" digunakan dalam Past Real Conditional. "if" digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang suatu perkerjaan atau aktivitas yang jarang terjadi di masa lampau. Sedangkan "when" digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu aktivitas dulunya sering terjadi.

Contoh:
  • When I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
  • I regularly had days off from work.
  • If I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
  • I rarely had days off from work.
Past Unreal Conditional

RUMUS

  • [If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ... ]
  • [... would have + past participle ... if ... Past Perfect ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Past Unreal Conditional digunakan untuk membicarakan situasi yang menjadi imajenasi di masa lampau.

Contoh:
  • If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't own one, so I took the bus.
  • She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn't have much money, so she never traveled.
  • I would have read more as a child if I hadn't watched so much TV. Unfortunately, I did watch a lot of TV, so I never read for entertainment.
  • Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in school instead of French.
  • If Jack had worked harder, he would have earned more money. Unfortunately, he was lazy and he didn't earn much.
  • A: What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week?
    B: I would have bought a house.
  • A: What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United States?
    B: I would have chosen Seattle.
Penggunaan "If"

"if" digunakan dalam Past Unreal Conditional sedangkan "when" tidak dapat digunakan dalam bentuk ini.

Contoh:
  • I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. Not Correct
  • I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. Correct
Conditional Dengan Modal Verbs

Perhatikan bentuk Modals dalam Conditional di bawah ini:
  1. would have + can = could have
  2. would have + shall = should have
  3. would have + may = might have
Kata "can," "shall" dan "may" tidak dapat digunakan dengan "would have."

Contoh:
  • If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic.
  • If she had had time, she might have gone to the party.
Kata "could," should," "might" dan "ought to" sudah termasuk dalam Conditional, jadi tidak perlu Anda gabungkan dengan "would have."

Contoh:
  • If I had had more time, I could have exercised after work.
  • If he had invited you, you might have gone.
FUTURE CONDITIONALS

Future Real Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Future ...]
  • [... Simple Future ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Future Real Conditional menggambarkan apa yang Anda pikirkan akan terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang. Bentuk ini berbeda dengan bentuk Real Conditional karena Anda tidak tahu apa yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Walaupun bentuk ini disebut dengan "real", Anda biasanya membayangkan atau menebak apa yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Disebut dengan "real" karena apa yang kita bayangkan atau pikirkan bisa saja terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Contoh:
  • If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers.
  • I am still not sure if I will go to his house or not.
  • When I have a day off from work, I am going to go to the beach.
  • I have to wait until I have a day off.
  • If the weather is nice, she is going to walk to work.
  • It depends on the weather.
  • Jerry will help me with my homework when he has time.
  • I have to wait until he has time.
  • I am going to read if there is nothing on TV.
  • It depends on the TV schedule.
  • A: What are you going to do if it rains?
    B: I am going to stay at home.

If / When

"if" dan "when" digunakan untuk Future Real Conditional, namun penggunaannya berbeda dengan bentuk Real Conditional. Dalam Future Real Conditional, "if" digunakan utnuk menjelaskan apa yang Anda tidak ketahui apa yang akan terjadi, sedangkan "when" digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu kejadian yang Anda ketahui akan terjadi pada waktu tertentu.

Contoh:
  • When you call me, I will give you the address.
  • You are going to call me later, and at that time, I will give you the address.
  • If you call me, I will give you the address.
  • If you want the address, you can call me.
Future Unreal Conditional

BENTUK Ke 1 (Bentuk Yang Paling Umum)
  • [If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]
  • [... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Future Unreal Conditional digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang situasi yang kita bayangkan di masa yang akan datang. Bentuk ini tidak sama dengan Future Real Conditional karena apapun bisa terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Bentuk ini hanya digunakan ketika si pembicara perlu untuk menekankan bahwa sesuatu itu tidak mungkin. Karena bentuk ini hampir sama dengan Present Unreal Conditional, banyak native speaker lebih suka menggunakan bentuk ke 2 di bawah

Contoh:
  • If I had a day off from work next week, I would go to the beach.
    I don't have a day off from work.
  • I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party.
    I can't come.
  • Jerry would help me with my homework tomorrow if he didn't have to work.
    He does have to work tomorrow.
BENTUK Ke 2
  • [If ... were + present participle ..., ... would be + present participle ...]
  • [... would be + present participle ... if ... were + present participle ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Bentuk ke 2 dari Future Unreal Conditional juga digunakan untuk membayangkan apa yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Native speaker lebih suka menggunakan bentuk ini dari pada bentuk ke 1 untuk menekankan pengandaian di masa yang akan datang. Perhatikan contoh kalimat di bawah ini bahwa bentuk ini dapat digunakan dalam bentuk if-clause, hasil, ATAU Kedua bagian kalimat.

Contoh:
  • If I were going to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. In if-clause dan hasil.
    I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.
  • If I were not visiting my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. Dalam if-clause.
    I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.
  • I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. Hasilnya
    I am not going to come to your party.
BENTUK Ke 3
  • [If ... were going to + verb ..., ... would be + present participle ...]
  • [... would be + present participle ... if ... were going to + verb ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Bentuk ke 3 dari Future Unreal Conditional merupakan bentuk variasi dari bentuk ke 2 yang juga digunakan untuk menjelaskan situasi yang kita bayangkan di masa yang akan datang. Perhatikan bahwa bentuk ini hanya berbeda dengan bentuk ke-2 dalam hal "if-clause". Native speaker menggunakan bentuk ke-3 ini untuk menekankan bahwa bentuk conditional ini merupakan rencana atau prediksi.

Contoh:
  • If I were going to go to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. (I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.)
  • If I were not going to visit my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. (I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow)

Penggunaan "If"

"if" hanya digunakan dalam Past Unreal Conditional karena apa yang kita diskusikan adalah situasi yang kita bayangkan. "when" tidak dapat digunakan.

Contoh:
  • I would buy that computer tomorrow when it were cheaper. Not Correct
  • I would buy that computer tomorrow if it were cheaper. Correct
Conditional with Modal Verbs

Perhatikan beberapa bentuk penggabungan Modals Verbs di bawah ini:
  1. would + can = could
  2. would + shall = should
  3. would + may = might
Kata "can," "shall" dan "may" dapat digunakan dengan "would."

Contoh:
  • If I went to Egypt next year, I would can learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. Not Correct
  • If I went to Egypt next year, I could learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. Correct
Kata "could," should," "might" dan "ought to" tidak perlu digabungkan dengan "would."

Contoh:
  • If I didn't have to work tonight, I would could go to the fitness center. Not Correct
  • If I didn't have to work tonight, I could go to the fitness center. Correct
Future Real Conditional vs. Future Unreal Conditional

Untuk membantu Anda memahami perbedaan antara Future Real Conditional dan Future Unreal Conditional, bandingkan kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini

Contoh:
  • If you help me move tomorrow, I will buy you dinner. Future Real Conditional (I don't know if you can help me)
  • If you helped me move tomorrow, I would buy you dinner. Future Unreal Conditional (You can't help me, or you don't want to help me)
CONTINUOUS CONDITIONALS

Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous

RUMUS
  • If-clause: [were + present participle]
  • Result: [would be + present participle]
PENGGUNAAN

Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang situasi yang kita bayangkan akan sedang terjadi.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If the sun were shining, I would go to the beach. (Unfortunately, it is raining so I can't go)
  • If Sam were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves. (But Sam is not sitting here. He is somewhere else)
  • We would be able to go sailing if the wind were blowing. (But there is no wind, so we can't go sailing)
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • If I were in Hawaii, I would be lying on the beach. (But I am not in Hawaii)
  • If my grandfather were here, he would be talking about the war. (But he is not here)
  • I would be rafting down the Colorado River right now if my leg weren't broken. (But my leg is broken, so I am not there)
Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous

RUMUS
  • If-clause: [had been + present participle]
  • Result: [would have been + present participle]
PENGGUNAAN

Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous digunakan untuk menjelaskan situasi yang kita bayangkan sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang lalu.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If I had been talking to him when he said that, I would have punched him in the face. (But I wasn't talking to him when he said that)
  • If he had been standing near the house when the wall collapsed, it would have killed him. (Luckily, he moved away before the wall fell)
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • If you had gone to his house last night, he would have been sitting on his couch in front of the TV. (But you didn't go to his house, so you didn't see what he was doing)
  • If she had missed her train, he would have been waiting for her at the station for hours. (Luckily, she caught her train and he didn't have to wait)
CATATAN: Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous dapat digunakan seperti Past Continuous dalam situasi yang kita bayangkan untuk menekankan interupsi atau aktivitas parallel di masa yang lampau.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If James had been crossing the street when the car ran the red light, it would have hit him.
  • If Tom had been studying while Becky was making dinner, he would have finished his homework early and they could have gone to the movie.
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • If James hadn't stopped to tie his shoe, he would have been crossing the street when the car ran the red light.
  • If you had gone to their house last night, Bob would have been reading the newspaper, Nancy would have been talking on the phone and the kids would have been watching TV. They always do the same things.
CATATAN: Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous dapat juga digunakan seperti Present Perfect Continuous atau Past Perfect Continuous untuk membayangkan situasi yang bertujuan untuk menekankan durasi suatu aktivitas.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • Scott said he had been studying Greek for more than five years. If he had been studying the language that long, I think he would have been able to interpret for us at the airport.
  • Sarah claimed she had been waiting in the rain for more than twenty minutes by the time we arrived, but she wasn't even wet. If she had been waiting that long, I think she would have been totally drenched by the time we arrived.
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • Terry's plane arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadn't decided to go to the airport early, she would have been waiting there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived.
  • At the travel agency yesterday, I waited for more than an hour for somebody to help me. Finally, I got up and left. If I hadn't decided to leave, I would have been sitting there forever.
Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous

RUMUS
  • If-clause: [were + present participle]
  • Result: [would be + present participle]
PENGGUNAAN

Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous dapat digunakan seperti Future Continuous yaitu untuk membayangkan situasi yang menekankan kegiatan parallel di masa yang akan datang.

CATATAN: Bentuk future kelihatannya bentuknya sama dengan bentuk present. Future menunjukkan kata-kata seperti "tomorrow," "next week" atau "in a couple of days."

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If I were waiting there next week when he gets off the plane, he would be totally surprised. (But I will not be waiting there, so he won't be surprised)
  • If he were staying in that hotel next week while the conference is being held, he might be able to meet some of the key speakers and tell them about our new product. (I don't think he will be able to stay at the hotel, so he won't be able to meet anybody there)
Contoh dalam hasil:
  • If I were able to go to the train station tonight to meet Sandra, I would be standing on the platform waiting for her when she arrives. (I won't be able to go to the train station, so I will not be standing there when she arrives)
  • If you went over to Paul's house after work, he would probably be sitting there at his computer surfing the Internet. (But you won't go over)
MIXED CONDITIONALS

Berikut ini akan kami jelaskan Conditional Campuran. Perhatikan tulisan-tulisan yang bercetak tebal.
  1. Hijau = Present Unreal Conditional
  2. Biru = Past Unreal Conditional
  3. Ungu = Future Unreal Conditional
  • If I had won the lottery, I would be rich.(But I didn't win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now)
  • If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities. (But I didn't take French in high school and I don't have many job opportunities)
  • If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn't need a visa to work here. (But she wasn't born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here)
  • If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. (But she didn't sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn't going to join us tomorrow)
  • If Mark had gotten the job instead of Joe, he would be moving to Shanghai.(But Mark didn't get the job and Mark is not going to move to Shanghai)
  • If Darren hadn't wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas, he would go to Mexico with us next month.(But Darren wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas and he won't go to Mexico with us next month)
  • If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday.(But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn't buy the Ferrari yesterday)
  • If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you.(But Sam doesn't speak Russian and that is why he didn't translate the letter)
  • If I didn't have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night.(But I have to work a lot and that is why I didn't go to the party last night)
  • If I didn't have so much vacation time, I wouldn't go with you on the cruise to Alaska next week. (But I do have a lot of vacation time and I will go on the trip next week)
  • If Cindy were more creative, the company would send her to New York to work on the new advertising campaign.(But Cindy is not creative and the company won't send her to New York to work on the new campaign)
  • If Dan weren't so nice, he wouldn't be tutoring you in math tonight. (But Dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight)
  • If I weren't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work.(But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn't accept that new assignment at work)
  • If my parents weren't coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Napa Valley. (But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why I didn't plan a trip for the two of us to Napa Valley)
  • If Donna weren't making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.(But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why I didn't suggest that we go to that nice Italian restaurant)
  • If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. (But I am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why I am not excited)
  • If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. (But Sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous)
  • If Seb didn't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed. (But Seb will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy)

Conditional Sentences

Posted by Rama Van Basten under

Conditional (Kalimat Pengandaian) menjelaskan bahwa sebuah kegiatan bertentangan dengan kegiatan yang lain. Conditional yang paling umum adalah Real Conditonal dan Unreal Conditonal, kadang-kadang disebut juga if-clauses.

Real Conditional (sering juga disebut juga dengan Conditional Tipe I) yang menggambarkan tentang mengandai-andai sesuai dengan fakta.

Unreal Conditional (sering juga disebut sebagai Conditional Tipe II) yang menggambarkan tentang pengandaian yang tidak nyata atau berimajinasi.

Ada juga Conditional yang ke-3 yang sering disebut dengan Conditional Tipe III, digunakan sebagai penyesalan yang terjadi di masa lampau dan zero conditional, digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang sudah pasti benar.

Catatan: Jika klausa "if" diletakkan di awal kalimat, kita harus menggunakan "koma". Sebaliknya jika klausa "if" berada di belakang, maka tidak perlu ada koma

Zero Conditional

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan kebenaran umum. Tense yang digunakan biasanya Present Simple Tense

Rumus

(Klausa IF)

(Induk Kalimat)

If you heat water to 100 degrees Celsius,

it boils.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat)

(Klausa IF)

Water boils

if you heat it to 100 degrees Celsius,

Contoh:

  • If you drop an apple, it falls. = An apple falls, if you drop it.
  • If you don't do your homework, I will be disappointed. = I will be disappointed, if you don't do your homework.

Catatan: Pada tipe ini, "if" sering digantikan dengan "when"

Conditional I

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan pengandaian yang dibuat berdasarkan fakta di masa sekarang atau masa yang akan datang dan pengandaian ini bisa saja terjadi. Klausa "if" biasanya dalam bentuk Present Simple Tense.

Rumus

(Klausa IF)

(Induk Kalimat)

If I see you tomorrow,

I will buy you a drink.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat)

(Klausa IF)

I will buy you a drink

if I see you tomorrow.

Kita sering menggunakan unless yang artinya 'jika... tidak'.

Rumus

(Klausa IF)

(Induk Kalimat)

Unless you hand in your homework,

I won't mark it.

Artinya

If you don't hand in your homework,

I won't mark it.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat)

(Klausa IF)

I won't mark your homework

unless you hand it in.

Artinya

I won't mark your homework

if you don't hand it in.

Catatan: Kita tidak pernah menggunakan will, atau won't dalam Klausa IF.

Contoh:

  • If I have time today, I will phone my friend. = I will phone my friend, if I have time today.
  • If I go to England, I will buy some Cheddar cheese. = I will buy some Cheddar cheese, if I go to England.

Conditional Tipe II

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan situasi yang tidak nyata di masa sekarang atau masa yang akan datang. Tipe ini digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah harapan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam klausa IF adalah Past Simple Tense.

Rumus

(Klausa IF)

(Induk Kalimat)

If I won the lottery,

I would buy a new house.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat)

(Klausa IF)

I would buy a new house

if I won the lottery.

Catatan: Jangan gunakan would atau wouldn't dalam Klausa IF.

Contoh:

  • If I were you, I wouldn't do that. = I wouldn't do that, if I were you.
  • If I had more time, I would do more on my websites. = I would do more on my websites, if I had more time.

Conditional Tipe III

Digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sebuah kondisi di masa yang lampau yang tidak mungkin akan terjadi lagi. Sering digunakan untuk mengkritik atau penyesalan. Tenses yang digunakan dalam Klausa IF adalah Past Perfect Tense.

Rumus

(Klausa IF)

(Induk Kalimat)

If I had worked harder,

I would have passed my exam.

If I had worked harder,

I could have passed my exam.

If I had worked harder,

I should have passed my exam.

Atau

(Induk Kalimat)

(Klausa IF)

I would have passed my exam

if I had worked harder.

I could have passed my exam

if I had worked harder.

I should have passed my exam

if I had worked harder.

Catatan: Jangan gunakan would have atau wouldn't have, dll dalam Klausa IF.

Contoh:

  • If I hadn't helped you, you would have failed. = You would have failed, if I hadn't helped you.
  • If it had been sunny, we could have gone out. = We could have gone out, if it had been.

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