Bored - Boring

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Bored dan Boring adalah kata sifat. Namun artinya keduanya berbeda. Bahkan penggunaannya sering salah kaprah dalam percakapan sehari-hari, terutama orang-orang Indonesia. Perbedaannya adalah sebagai berikut:
  1. Bored = Bosan
  2. Boring = membosankan
namun, dalam percakapan sehari-hari, kita sering menggunakan ungkapan:
  • I am boring (saya membosankan)
Pdahal maksud si pembicara adalah "saya bosan". Untuk ungkapan ini, maka yang harus kita ucapkan adalah:
I am bored because this film is boring.
(Saya bosan karena film ini membosankan)

Beside - Besides

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"Beside" dan "Besides" adalah kata depan (Prepositions). Walaupun keduanya tergolong pada kelompok kata yang sama, namun fungsi dan maknanya berbeda. Perbedaannya dapat kita lihat pada penjelasan di bawah ini:
  1. Beside = disamping (menjelaskan posisi dari suatu benda, baik di samping kanan, maupun di samping sebelah kiri).
  2. Besides = disamping (menjelaskan tambahan dari sesuatu atau menyatakan "juga").
Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:
  • Alex sits beside me. (BUKAN: besides me)
  • Besides English, she can speak Japanese. (BUKAN: beside English)

Be vs Being

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Kata Kerja 'to be' disebut juga Stative Verb. Kata Kerja tersebut jarang digunakan dalam bentuk kata kerja continuous (progressive) seperti, Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous, dll.
  • I am sad at the moment (BUKAN I am being sad...)
  • He was in the kitchen when the phone rang (BUKAN He was being in the kitchen...)
  • I will be in Tenerife this time next week (BUKAN I will be being in Tenerife...)
Namun, beberapa kata kerja statif dapat juga digunakan dalam bentuk kata kerja Continuous ketika mengandung makna tertentu. Be adalah salah satu dari kata kerja tersebut.

Kalimat berikut ini tidak salah karena be digunakan untuk menggambarkan sebuah aktivitas.
  • The children are being very naughty (= They are doing naughty things)
  • He was being careless (= He was doing something carelessly)
Bandingkan contoh berikut ini, dimana be digunakan tidak untuk menggambarkan sebuah aaktivitas:
  • I hope you are well. (BUKAN I hope you are being well).
  • He was very happy when his friends arrived. (BUKAN He was being very happy ...)
Penggunaan lainnya dari kata being adalah dalam bentuk kata kerja Pasif. Kita biasanya memakainya dengan kata kerja bentuk ketiga. Bentuknya seperti di bawah ini:

Present progressive (am/are/is being + past participle)
  • The shop is closed because it is being renovated.
Past progressive (was/were being + past participle)
  • I knew that he was being dishonest.
Passive -ing forms (being + past participle)
  • They look forward to being invited.
be + infinitive

Rencana Yang Matang: Fungsi bentuk seperti ini adalah untuk menjelaskan suatu rencana yang sudah disusun terlebih dahulu, terutama untuk menjelaskan suatu rencana yang bersifat resmi.
  • The President is to visit Nigeria next month.
Nasib: Fungsi ini juga untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang mungkin terjadi di masa yang akan datang.
  • I thought we were saying goodbye for ever. But we were to meet again, many years later.
Pra-syarat: Di dalam Kalimat Pengandaian (Conditional), ketika klausa utama mengekspresikan sesuatu yang harus terjadi dulu jika sesuatu yang lainnya itu terjadi.
  • We must hurry if we are to get there by lunchtime.
Perintah: bentuk ini juga untuk memberikan perintah
  • You can go to the party, but you are not to be back late.
Be + passive infinitive: Bentuk ini sering digunakan dalam bentuk Pemberitahuan dan Instruksi.
  • This cover is not to be removed.
  • The medicine is to be taken three times a day.

Auxiliary Verbs

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Auxiliary (Kata Bantu) digunakan bersama-sama dengan kata kerja lainnya untuk membantu mengekspresikan arti, atau khususnya mempunyai fungsi gramatikal. Di bawah ini akan kami jelaskan secara terperinci tentang Auxiliary Verbs. Selamat Belajar

Macam-macam Auxiliary Verb
  1. is, am, are
  2. be, been, being
  3. was, were
  4. do, does, did
  5. have, has, had
  6. can, could
  7. will, would
  8. may, might
  9. shall, should
  10. must
  11. ought to
  12. need, dare
Penggunaan Auxiliary Verb

1. Linking Verbs

Adalah kata kerja bantu yang berfungsi untuk menghubungkan antara subyek dan predikat. Adapun kata kerja bantu yang dapat berfungsi sebagai linking (copulative) verb yaitu: To Be = (am, is, are, was, were, be, being dan been).

Contoh:
  1. She was at my house yesterday
  2. I am a doctor
2. To do, does, did dan done
  • Dapat berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa yang berarti mengerjakan.
Contoh:
  1. She did her homework yesterday.
  2. 1 do my homework every day.
  • Sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, kalimat menyangkal (negative), atau jawaban singkat.
Contoh:
  1. Did you go to church yesterday?
  2. Does he come to your house?
  3. Do you know about Anne? Yes, I do.
3. Have - has dan had

  • Berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa yang berarti "mempunyai".
Contoh:
  1. I have a new care.
  2. She has much money.
  3. He had two cars last year.
  • Sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam membentuk Tense, misalnya present perfect tense, past perfect tense dan sebagainya.
Contoh:
  1. She has bought a new car.
  2. He had studies French.
  3. She has been working here for 12 years.
Penggunaan Modal Auxiliary

Catatan:
  1. Dalam sebuah kalimat tidak boleh ada dua buah modal auxiliary. Kalau Anda dihadapkan dengan 2 buah modals (Dalam bahasa Indonesia, misalnya, "saya harus bisa ..." maka modals yang kedua, harus diubah ke bentuk lain yang mempunyai sama arti.
  2. Kata Kerja sesudah modal auxiliaryharus bentuk pertama.
CAN

Dipakai untuk menyatakan:

1. Kesanggupan atau kemahiran seseorang.

Contoh:
  1. She can sing beautifully.
  2. 1 can speak English.
2. Minta izin.

Contoh:
  1. Can I borrow your book?
  2. Can I come to your house?
3. Kemungkinan.

Contoh:
  1. She can be at home at noon.
  2. He can be ill. (mungkin dia sakit).
COULD

Adalah bentuk Past Tense dari CAN dan bentuknya sama untuk semua subyek. Namun dalam penggunaannya tidak selamanya berarti past time (masa lalu).

COULD dipakai untuk menyatakan:

1 Bentuk lampau dari Can.

Contoh:
  1. Mary could sing a song when she was young.
  2. She could not come here yesterday because she was ill.
2. Permintaan dengan sopan.

Contoh:
  1. Could you help me now?
  2. Could you take that book for me?
3. Kemungkinan.

Contoh:
  1. She could be at home now, but she usually plays volleyball.
  2. He could be very busy at that time.
SHALL

Digunakan untuk menyatakan:

1. Artinya "akan" dalam bentuk Future Tense.

Contoh:
  1. I shall go to London tomorrow. (Saya akan pergi ke London besok).
  2. We shall buy a new motorcycle next week.
2. Menawarkan Bantuan.

Contoh:
  1. Shall I open the window?
  2. Shall I make coffee for you?
3. Janji.

Contoh:
  1. You shall have a motorcycle.(Saya janjikan anda akan dapat mempunyai sepeda motor).
  2. I shall meet her tomorrow.
SHOULD

Digunakan untuk menyatakan:

1. Bentuk lampau dari shall.

Contoh:
  1. When he come to my house I should go.
  2. I should visit to your house before you came to my house.
2. Anjuran (Artinya "sebaiknya").

Contoh:
  1. You are ill, you should go to the doctor soon.
  2. She is tired, she should take a rest.
3. Keharusan

Dalam hal ini SHOULD sama artinya dengan Ought to.

Contoh:
  1. You should (ought to) do your homework every day.
  2. He should (ought to) study hard.
4. Dalam bentuk lampaunya berarti menunjukkan suatu kegiatan yang seharusnya dikerjakan tetapi kenyataannya tidak dikerjakan. Atau dapat juga berarti penyesalan dimasa lampau.

Contoh:
  1. You should (ought to) have studied hard before take an exam. = Anda seharusnya belajar dengan keras sebelum mengikuti ujian. (Dalam kenyataannya Anda tidak belajar dengan keras, tetapi tetap mengikuti ujian).
  2. John should (ought to) have gone to the dentist yesterday. (Dalam kenyataannya John tidak pergi ke dokter gigi kemarin - he did not go).
WILL

Digunakan untuk menyatakan:

1. Artinya "akan" dalam bentuk Future Ssimple Tense, dan sama dengan to be going to.

Contoh:
  1. I will go to Jakarta next week. (=I am going to Jakarta next week).
  2. She will come here soon.
2. Permintaan dengan sopan atau menawarkan.

Contoh:
  1. Will you carry that bag for me?
  2. Will you go with me?
WOULD

Digunakan untuk menyatakan:

1. Bentuk lampau dari Will yang berarti "akan".

Contoh:
  1. He would be punished before he escaped.
  2. She knows that it would be pleasant in Bali.
2. Suatu permohonan/permintaan dengan sopan.

Contoh:
  1. Would you please help me?
  2. Would you mind closing the window?
3. Jika digabung dengan kata LIKE menunjukkan hasrat atau keinginan.

Contoh:
  1. I would like to eat.
  2. Would you like to go there?
4. Digabung dengan kata "rather" menunjukkan arti Lebih suka (prefer).

Contoh:
  1. I would rather be a doctor than a president.
  2. I would rather have stayed home than went to the movies.
MAY

Kata kerja bantu yang berarti "boleh/mungkin" yang digunakan untuk menyatakan:

1. Permohonan izin.


Contoh:
  1. May I borrow your motorcycle? Yes, you may. (Bolehkah aku pinjam sepeda motormu?)
  2. May I go home now? No, you may not. (Bolehkah aku pulang sekarang?)
  3. Henry may be late. (Mungkin Henry terlambat).
2. Permohonan atau harapan.

Contoh:
  1. May you both the happy. (Mudah-mudahan Anda berdua bahagia).
  2. May God bless you. (Mudah-mudahan Tuhan memberkati Anda).
MIGHT

Bentuk lampau (past tense) dari MAY, namun pemakaiannya jugs dapat untuk mass kini atau mass datang.

Contoh:
  1. Alex might be late yesterday. (Mungkin Alex terlambat kemarin).
  2. Please take an umbrella with you, It might rain. (Bawalah payung, hari mungkin hujan).
  3. I told him that he might go home. (Saya beritahukan kepadanya bahwa ia boleh pulang).
  4. You might try to be more careful.
MUST

Kata kerja bantu yang berarti harus atau wajib, digunakan untuk menyatakan:

1. Keharusan/mesti.

Contoh:
  1. You must go now. (Anda harus pergi sekarang!)
  2. I must do my homework soon. (Saya harus segera mengerjakan peker aan rumahku).
  3. She must study hard. (Dia harus belajar keras).
2. Dalam kalimat menyangkal (negatif) dan membuat jawaban dari kalimat tanya, selalu digunakan NEED NOT atau Needn't bukan musn't (must not).

Contoh:
  1. Must I go now? Yes, you must atau yes, you need.
  2. Must she pay it? No, she needn't.
  3. You needn't go now. (Anda tidak perlu pergi sekarang) bukan musn't.
  4. She need not come here. again. (Dia tak perlu lagi datang ke sini).
3. Must not (musn't) menunjukkan (berarti) larangan atau tidak boleh.

Contoh:
  1. You must not smoke in the class. (Anda dilarang merokok di dalam kelas).
  2. Susan mustn't go there alone. (Susan tidak boleh (dilarang) pergi ke sana sendirian).
4. Must = Have to (she/he has to) berarti harus.

Contoh:
  1. You must (have to) read this book. (Anda harus membaca buku ini).
  2. She must (has to) go to school today. (Dia harus ke sekolah hari ini).
  3. They must (or have to) work hard. (Mereka harus bekerja keras).
5. Must tidak mempunyai bentuk Past Tense. Bentuk lampau yang berarti "harus/mesti" adalah HAD TO, dan bentuknya sama untuk semua obyek.

Contoh:
  1. I had to meet my sister yesterday. (Saya kemarin harus berjumpa saudara perempuanku).
  2. She had to leave for Jakarta last week. (Dia harus meninggalkan Jakarta pekan lalu).
OUGHT TO = SHOULD

1. Kata kerja bantu yang artinya sebaiknya atau seharusnya.

Contoh:
  1. She ought to be here now. (Dia seharusnya ada di sini sekarang).
  2. Ought she to come here again? (Haruskah dia datang ke sini lagi?)
  3. She asked me what ought to be typed. (Dia bertanya kepadaku apa yang harus diketik).
2. Menyatakan tugas/pekerjaan yang tidak terselesaikan/terpenuhi atau terabaikan. Biasanya dalam bentuk Perfect Infinitives

Contoh:
  1. The work ought to have been finished last week. (Pekerjaan itu seharusnya sudah diselesaikan pekan lalu).
  2. You ought not (oughtn't) to have crossed the road when the lights were red. (Anda seharusnya tidak menyeberang jalan ketika lampu berwarna merah).
  3. You ought to have told him that the paint on that seat is wet. (Anda seharusnya sudah memberi tahu dia bahwa cat pada tempat duduk itu masih basah).
NEED

Need artinya "Perlu" dan digunakan sebagai:

1. Untuk membuat kalimat negatif dan jawaban dari pertanyaan yang memakai MUST

Contoh:
  1. I must go now. (Positif).
  2. I needn't go now. (Negatif). bukan: I mustn't go now, karena kalimat ini berarti.: (Saya dilarang pergi sekarang).
  3. Must I go now? No, you needn't atau Yes, you must.
2. Sebagai kata kerja biasa yang berarti "perlu" dan mengalami perubahan bentuk.
  1. need - needs (Present Tense)
  2. needed - (Past Tense).
Dalam hal ini, bentuk interrogative dan negative-nya dibuat dengan auxiliary verb "do/does" untuk present tense, dan dengan "did" untuk past tense, sebagaimana umumnya kata kerja biasa.

Contoh:
  1. They need some milk.
  2. They don't need any milk.
  3. Do they need any milk?
  4. She doesn't need much money.
  5. Did Ali need to meet with you?
  6. Ali didn't need to go with you.
  7. Ali need to go with you.
DARE

Artinya "berani" dan digunakan sebagai:

1. Kata kerja bantu

Contoh:
  1. He dare go there alone. (Dia berani pergi sendirian ke sana)
  2. Dare he do it?
  3. I dare not to climb the tree.
Catatan:

"DARE" jika berfungsi sebagai Kata Kerja Bantu tidak memakai "S" untuk orang ketiga tunggal, jadi untuk kalimat nomor I, bukan: She/He dares.

2. Kata kerja biasa

Kalau DARE berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa, maka pemakaiannya sama seperti kata kerja biasa lainnya, yaitu dalam kalimat tanya dan negatif menggunakan auxiliary verb. Do/Does atau Did.

Contoh:
  1. She doesn't dare to go there alone.
  2. Does he dare to come here again?
  3. I don't dare to climb the tree.
Dalam bentuk past tense, Dare mempunyai dua macaw bentuk yang dapat dipakai untuk kalimat tanya atau kalimat negatif .

Contoh:
  1. He dared not to go there alone yesterday, atau He didn't dare (to) go three alone.
  2. Dared he go there alone? atau Did he dare (to) go there alone?
  3. She dared not visit me last week, atau She didn't dare (to) visit me last week.

Articles

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Articles adalah kata yang digabungkan dengan kata benda (nouns) yang berfungsi untuk membatasi atau memodifikasi kata benda. Dalam Bahasa Inggris, hanya ada 3 article, yaitu a, an dan the. Namun jangan gunakan Article apabila kita ingin membicarakan sesuatu yang bersifat umum. Untuk lebih jelasnya, silahkan ikuti penjelasan ini bawah ini:

Jenis-jenis Article:

1. INDEFINITE ARTICLE - A - AN (DETERMINER)

"A" dan "AN" termasuk indefinite articles. Keduanya mengacu pada sesuatu yang tidak spesifik terhadap orang yang diajak berbicara. "A"dan "AN" diletakkan sebelum kata benda yang belum pernah Anda sebutkan sebelumnya kepada lawan bicara Anda.
  • "I saw an elephant this morning."
  • "I ate a banana for lunch
"A" dan "AN" juga digunakan ketika kita berbicara tentang pekerjaan kita.
  • "I am an English teacher."
  • "I am a builder."
CATATAN

Kita menggunakan a ketika di belakangnya adalah kata benda yang dimulai dengan suara konsonan (BUKAN huruf konsonan). Dan kita menggunakan an ketika kata benda yang berada di belakangnya dimulai dengan bunyi vokal.
  • Pada kata "university" kata tersebut dimulai dengan suara "y" dan sepertinya kita mengucapkan "youniversity". Maka article yang dipakai adalah, "a university" BUKAN "an university"
  • Kemudian pada kata "hour" kita menyebutnya seperti kita mengucapkan "our". Maka, Article yang dipakai adalah "an hour" BUKAN "a hour"
2. DEFINITE ARTICLE - THE (DETERMINER)

Kita memakai " the" ketika kita tahu betul kalau benda yang sedang kita bicarakan sudah dimengerti maksudnya oleh pendengar kita.
  • "The apple you ate was rotten."
  • "Did you lock the car?"
Kita juga harus menggunakan " the" di depan kata benda yang sudah kita bicarakan sebelumnya. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini.
  • "She's got two children; a girl and a boy. The girl's eight and the boy's fourteen."
Gunakan "the" untuk membicakan titik tertentu pada lokasi geografi.
  • the North Pole, the equator
Gunakan "the" untuk di depan nama sungai, Samudra dan laut.
  • the Nile, the Pacific, the English channel
Gunakan "the" untuk benda yang cuma ada 1 di dunia ini.
  • the sun, the wind, the world, the earth, the White House.
Namun jika kita ingin menggambarkan contoh khusus, maka gunakan "a" atau "an".
  • "I could hear the wind." / "There's a cold wind blowing."
  • "What are your plans for the future?" / "She has a promising future ahead of her."
Kita juga bisa menggunakan "the" untuk mengatakan tentang orang atau benda tertentu yang sudah terkenal.
  • "Harry's Bar is the place to go."
  • "You don't mean you met the Tony Blair, do you?"
TIDAK ADA ARTICLE

Jangan gunakan article di depan kata benda yang bersifat umum.
  • Water flows from higher to lower place. (Semua air mengalir dari atas ke bawah, tidak ada air tertentu yang mengalir dari tempat rendah ke tempat tinggi)
  • People are worried about rising crime. (Semua orang khawatir akan tingginya kriminalitas)
Jangan gunakan article untuk menyatakan olah raga .
  • My son plays football.
  • Tennis is expensive.
Jangan gunakan article sebelum kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung (uncountable nouns) ketika kita membicarakannya secara umum.
  • Information is important to any organisation.
  • Coffee is bad for you.
Jangan gunakan article di depan nama negara KECUALI terdiri dari kata-kata seperti (state(s), kindom, republic, union). Kingdom, state, republic dan union adalah kata benda, jadi tidak butuh article.
  • Tidak ada article - Italy, Mexico, Bolivia
  • Gunakan the - the UK, the USA, the Irish Republic
  • Perhatikan! the Netherlands

Apa Beda "Forget to see" dan "Forget seeing"

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Forget merupakan salah satu kata kerja yang dapat diikuti oleh Gerund (V-ing) dan Infinitive (to Verb). Namun bagaimana untuk membedakannya? Perhatikan penjelasannya di bawah ini:
  1. Forget + V-ing = Lupa apa yang sudah dilakukan/terjadi.
  2. Forget + to Inf = Lupa apa yang harus dilakukan.
Perhatikan dan bedakan maksud dari kalimat di bawah ini:
  1. I will never forget seeing the Queen.
    (Saya tidak akan pernah melupakan tentang pengalaman saya berjumpa dengan Ibu Ratu)
  2. She always forgets to see her mother at the hospital.
    (Dia selalu lupa kalau ia harus menjenguk ibunya di RS)

Aneka Ragam Arti "FOR"

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Secara Umum kata "FOR" artinya adalah "Untuk", namun di bawah ini akan kami jelaskan aneka ragam arti yang dapat diterjemahkan dari kata "FOR".

UNTUK
  • This letter is for you.
  • Reserve a seat for me.
MENGGANTIKAN
  • I offer you new lamps for old.
MENDUKUNG
  • He fought for his country.
  • Are you for or against the proposal?
SEPANJANG, SEJAUH
  • We walked for five kilometers.
  • They waited for two hours.
TUJUAN
  • They sailed for the pacific.
  • A train for London
KARENA
  • They could not see for smoke.
SEHARGA

  • You can buy this for $1.
DENGAN TUJUAN
  • Let us go for a walk.
  • What is this tool for?
  • They chose him for their leader.

Amount vs Number

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Kadang-kadang kita sedikit bingung dengan penggunaan kata "Amount" dan "Number". Sepintas lalu keduanya mempunyai arti yang mirip. Pada dasarnya kedua kata tersebut berbeda. Perhatikan penjelasan di bawah ini:
  • AMOUNT Digunakan Dengan Uncountable Nouns
Contoh:
  1. We didn't expect the bill to come to this amount of money.
  2. Foods with a traditionally healthy appeal have up to twice the amount of sugar in them compared to 30 years ago.
  3. She borrowed a large amount of money.
  • NUMBER Digunakan Dengan Countable Nouns
Contoh:
  1. The number of U.S. residents with Alzheimer's disease is increasing annually, putting more pressure on the health care system.
  2. The highest officially recorded number of children born to one mother is 69, to the first wife of Feodor Vassilyev (1707-1782) of Shuya, Russia.

Already - Yet - Still

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Dalam Present Perfect, kita sering menyatakan bahwa kegunaannya adalah untuk membicarakan tentang kejadian yang berlangsung pada masa lampau dan terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa itu dan pada saat bicara kejadian tersebut masih berlangsung. Perhatikan contoh berikut ini:
  1. I've visited my parents three times this week.
  2. She's smoked a packet of cigarettes already today.
Nah, ketika kita membicarakan tentang "waktu yang belum selesai" ini, kita sering menggunakan " already"dan " yet", yang semuanya dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung atau kita mengharapkannya akan terjadi di masa sekarang.

"Already" dipakai untuk mengatakan bahwa sesuatu itu ada antara sekarang atau masa lampau, bukan di masa yang akan datang. Kata tersebut menyatakan ekspresi terkejut, misalnya karena sesuatu itu berlangsung lebih cepat dari yang diharapkan.
  1. "When's Sally going to come?" "She's already here."
  2. "You must go to Scotland." "I've already been.
  3. " Have you already finished? That was quick!
"Not yet" digunakan untuk mengatakan bahwa sesuatu yang diharapkan itu akan terjadi di masa datang, bukan sekarang atau di masa lalu.
  1. "Is Sally here?" "Not yet."
  2. The postman hasn't come yet.
Di dalam pertanyaan, kita memakai " yet" untuk bertanya apakah sesuatu yang kita harapkan itu sudah terjadi atau belum.
  1. Is supper ready yet?
  2. Has the postman come yet?"
"Already" dan "yet" dapat juga digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang masa lalu, dan dalam British English, kita memakai Past Perfect Tense untuk menyatakannya:
  1. I wanted to know if he had already left.
  2. They hadn't even got up yet.
Kata "still" memiliki arti dan penggunaan yang sama dengan already dan yet.
  1. She's still asleep.
  2. Is it still raining?
  3. I've been thinking for hours, but I still can't decide.
  4. You're not still seeing the Jackson boy, are you?
Kata "still" tersebut digunakan dengan Present Simple dan tenses-tenses Continuous. Sama dengan already dan yet, kata still dapat juga digunakan dengan arti Past. Dalam hal ini, Past Simple, Continuous atau Perfect bisa juga digunakan:
  1. When we arrived they were still at the dinner table.
  2. When we arrived they were still having dinner.
  3. When we arrived they still hadn't finished dinner.

All of

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
All of hanya digunakan ketika kata berikutnya adalah kata ganti (Pronouns)
  • All of us...
  • All of you...
  • All of it...
Gunakan "all" untuk kata benda normal.
  • All the soldiers... (BENAR)
  • All the nurses... (BENAR)
  • I need all of the chairs. (SALAH)
  • All of the divers returned safely. (SALAH)

Catatan:

Jangan diambil pusing mengenai hal ini. Zaman sekarang, manapun yang Anda pakai tidak jadi masalah.
  • Don't eat all the cake. (BENAR)
  • Don't eat all of the cake. (BENAR)
Namun, saran kami, gunakan saja yang sesuai dengan standard.

Agreement

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Agreement sering juga dikenal dengan Concordance. Concordance (Agreement) adalah persesuaian antara subjek dengan predikatnya.Untuk lebih jelas mengenai topik ini, silahkan ikuti pembahasan di bawah ini. Semoga bermanfaat dan selamat belajar.

Contoh:
  1. Alex works hard every day. (work harus ditambah “s” karena subjeknya orang ketiga tunggal - Alex).
  2. This ruler is long. (is menunjukkan subjek tunggal).
  3. The boy was very exhausted.
  4. She has written a letter today.
Beberapa Kaidah Dalam Agreements

A. Agreement Antara Subjek dan Kata Kerjanya

Apabila subjek-nya plural (jamak), maka kata kerjanya harus juga plural.
  1. They are very happy today.
  2. The boys often come late on Mondays.
  3. We have studied hard to pass the exam.
Apabila subjeknya singular (tunggal), maka kata kerjanya harus juga singular.
  1. He learns French every day.
  2. A car has been stolen.
  3. He is very happy.
Apabila dua subjek atau lebih dihubungkan dengan "and", maka kata kerjanya harus plural.
  1. The president and the prime minister are having a meeting now.
  2. Jack and Henry usually go to school by bus.
  3. My brother and I take a final exam.
  4. My parents were at your house yesterday.
Apabila dua kata benda yang berfungsi sebagai subjek dihubungkan dengan "and", dan menunjukkan singular person atau membentuk sebuah kesatuan makna, maka subjek tersebut berarti singular; oleh karena itu kata kerjanya harus juga singular.
  1. Thruth and honesty is the best policy.
  2. The poet and statesman is coming here.
Catatan:

Apabila sebelum "statesmen" ada "the", maka berarti plural, oleh karena itu kata kerjanya harus plural yaitu "are". Jadi,
  1. The poet and the statesman are coming here.
  2. Bread and butter is served for our breakfast.
  3. The stars and stripes flies overhead.
Apabila subjek adalah Collective Noun, singular dalam bentuknya, tetapi yang dimaksudkan plural, maka verb-nya harus juga plural, dan sebaliknya jika yang dimaksudkan singular maka verb-nya harus juga singular.

Beberapa contoh Collective Noun:
  1. congress, family, group, class, organization, team, army, committee, government, jury, club, public, dll
Contoh:
  1. The committee were unable to agree. (Maksud dari kalimat ini berarti untuk masing-masing anggota, maka kata kerjanya harus jamak).
  2. The soccer team wins the tournament. (Subjek kalimat ini menjadi satu kesatuan makna, bukan perseorangan, maka kata kerjanya harus tunggal).
  3. The family have to give their vote. (jamak)
  4. The jury agrees on a verdict. (tunggal)
Apabila dua atau lebih subjek kalimat yang tunggal digabungkan dengan:
  1. either ... or
  2. neither ... nor
  3. not only ... but also
Maka verb-nya menyesuaikan dengan subjek yang disebut di akhir, bukan di awal.

Contoh:
  1. Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach.
  2. Either John or his friends are very busy today.
  3. Not only Robert but also my parents are in the office.
  4. Neither my brothers nor Bob is going to class today.
  5. Either my parents or his friend is busy today.
  6. Not only my friends but also my cousin is in the office.
Apabila kita menjumpai frasa atau kalimat yang diapit oleh "koma, maka anggap saja frasa atau kalimat itu tidak ada dan tidak mempengaruhi kata kerja sesudahnya.
  1. of - together with - from - accompanied by - with - in addition to - between - along with - among - as well as - including
Contoh:
  1. Bambang, as well as his two cousin, calls me every day. (as well as his two cousin dianggap tidak ada). Jadi sepertinya kalimat aslinya adalah : Bambang calls me every day.
  2. My two aunts, along with their cat, visit me on Sunday. (=My two aunts visit me on Sunday)
  3. New York, together with 47 other states, votes for president. (= New York votes for president)
  4. Mr. Hunt, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight. (=Mr Huntn is arriving tonight)
Apabila Indefinite Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu singular.
  1. each - somebody - anything - everybody - someone - everything - everyone - no one - another - anyone - nothing - either - anybody - much - neither - dll.
Contoh:
  1. Each (of the men) was irrited with his work.
  2. Everybody here knows the importance of English.
  3. Nobody works harder than John does.
  4. Either is likely to be fired.
  5. Either of the available seats is very close to the stage.
Apabila Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya harus selalu dalam bentuk plural.
  1. both - few - many - others - several
Contoh:
  1. Several were present at the meeting but few spoke.
  2. Many people write a good novel.
  3. Others have tried this lock but no one has succeeded.
  4. Many are called A but few are chosen.
  5. Both were anxious to receive the award.
Apabila Collective Noun yang menunjukkan waktu, uang, ukuran, dan lain-lain dianggap sebagai satu kesatuan, maka predikatnya (verb) selalu singular, tetapi bila dipandang sebagai unit-unit yang terpisah, maka predikatnya (verb) harus plural.

Contoh:
  1. Seven years is along time for famine. (singular)
  2. Two mile is too much to run in one day. (singular)
  3. Three days is not enough to complete the project. (singular)
  4. These last three weeks have been full of surprise. (plural)
  5. There are fifty one bills in this envelope. (plural)
  6. Ninety people are registered for this course. (plural)
Apabila Indefinite Pronouns berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya dapat dalam bentuk singular atau plural, tergantung dari kata benda yang terletak sesudah "of".
  1. all - none - enough - most - a lot - any - some - more - part
most of the
+
Plural
Countable Nouns
+
Plural Verbs
some of the
part of the
all of the
Contoh:
  1. Half of the pies are left.
  2. Part of the books are interesting.
  3. Are all of the bales of cotton ready to be shipped?
  4. All of the women have brought gifts.
most of the
+
Singular
Uncountable Nouns
+
Singular Verbs
some of the
part of the
all of the
Contoh:
  1. All of the gasoline has been sold.
  2. Half of the pie is left.
  3. Part of the book was interesting.
  4. Most of the money was saved.
Keterangan:

None
dan No : Dapat diikuti oleh singular atau plural, tergantung pada noun yang mengikutinya.
  1. None of the counterfeit money has been found.
  2. None of the students have finished the exam yet.
  3. No example is difficult for you.
  4. No teachers go on strike.
"a number of + Plural Nouns + Singular Verbs" dan "the number of + Plural Nouns + Plural Verbs"

Contoh:
  1. The number of people in the room is ninety-two.
  2. A number of people have enrolled this course.
  3. A large number of applicants are already here.
  4. The number of days in a week is seven.
Apabila kata-kata berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu tunggal.
  1. clothing - economics - equipment - scenery - mumps - news - Philippines - furniture - behavior - knowledge - traffic - ethics - civics - athletics - dll
Contoh:
  1. The news is important.
  2. Economics was widely used.
  3. Knowledge is power.
  4. Statistics was my favorite subject in college.
Apabila kata-kata (noun) berikut ini menjadi subjek, maka verb-nya selalu dalam bentuk plural.
  1. belongings - proceeds - tactics - clothes - remains - thanks - goods - riches - wages
  2. pants - scissors - trousers - pliers - suds - tongs - shorts - jeans - glasses
Contoh:
  1. These scissors cut through heavy cardboard.
  2. Tim's clothes are on the bed; his pants, however, are in the closet.
  3. My new pliers grip firmly.
  4. The tactics she employed were highly effective.
Gunakan "a pair of" (sepasang), untuk mengubah kata-kata di atas menjadi Singular.

Contoh:
  1. A pair of pants is in the drawer.
  2. The pair of pliers was on the table.
  3. This pair of scissors is dull.
Beberapa Noun berikut ini digunakan untuk menunjukkan group/kelompok hewan tertentu yang mempunyai kesamaan dalam jenisnya, sehingga dianggap singular, maka verb-nya harus singular.
  1. flock of birds, sheep school of fish, herd of cattle, pack of dogs, pride of lions, troop of lions, dll.
Contoh:
  1. The herd of cattle is breaking away.
  2. The school of fish is being attached by sharks.
  3. The flock of birds is circling overhead.
Apabila "every", "many a" dan "each" digunakan sebelum subjek, maka verb-nya selalu singular.

Contoh:
  1. Every boy and girl on the team is a top student.
  2. Many a worker looks forward to the weekend.
  3. Each window and door was locked securely.
Apabila sebuah kalimat dimulai dengan gerund (verb + ing), maka verb-nya selalu singular.

Contoh:
  1. Not studying has caused him many problem.
  2. Writing many letters makes he happy.
  3. Dancing is very popular today.
"Here" dan "There" bukan tergolong subjek. subjek kalimat yang diawali dengan "here" dan "there" terletak sesudah verb-nya, maka verb-nya harus menyesuaikan dengan subjek yang ada.

Contoh:
  1. Here is your book.
  2. Here are your books.
  3. There has been an increase in the import of foreign cars.
  4. There are soldiers in the battle field.
Kata benda berikut ini berasal dari bahasa Latin dan dalam bentuk plural, maka verb-nya selalu plural.
  1. alumni - larvae - radii - criteria - alumnae - minutiae - stimuli - data - agenda - phenomena - synopses - vertebrae
Contoh:
  1. Your criteria are valid for judging these data.
  2. The alumni of Oxford University come to the meeting.
Bila suatu bilangan pecahan atau persentase digunakan sebagai subjek, maka verbnya dapat berbentuk singular atau plural, tergantung pada kata benda yang terletak sesudah "of".

Contoh:
  1. Two-fifths of our profits go to reinvestment.
  2. Three-fourths of the house is now ready.
  3. Fifty percent of his crop is soy beans.
  4. Twenty-five percent of the students work after school.
Bila subjek kalimat berupa judul buku, artikel, film, drama dan lain-lain, dan nama perusahaan, negara Berta organisasi, maka predikat (verb-nya) selalu singular meskipun kelihatannya subjek itu plural.

Contoh:
  1. The immigrants is a fine Bergman film.
  2. The Netherlands is located in Western Europe.
  3. Passages, by Gail Sheeky, won the best seller list for months.
  4. General Motors Company has declared a dividend.
  5. The Girl Scouts has its headquarters near my office.
Bila subjek berupa Frasa Kata Depan, maka predikatnya menyesuaikan dengan kata yang terletak sebelum "of".

Contoh:
  1. The study of languages is very interesting.
  2. Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
  3. The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
  4. The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.
  5. The effects of that crimes are likely to be devastating.
  6. The cost of new houses is rising every day.
Bila subjek kalimatnya berupa kata sifat yang ditambah dengan "the", maka predikat (verb)-nya selalu dalam bentuk plural.

Contoh:
  1. The unemployed are losing hope.
  2. The poor are trying to find the aid.
  3. The rich have collected money for the blind.
B. Agreement Antara Pronoun dan Antecedent

Antecedent
adalah kata yang diacu (tempat kembali) atau ditunjuk oleh pronoun (kata ganti).

a. Agreement in Number

Jika antecedent-nya singular, maka pronoun-nya harus juga singular, dan sebaliknya, jika antecedent plural maka pronounnya harus plural.
  1. The men bred their white cat.
  2. Each roan gets to heaven in his way.
  3. The jury were divided. They were unable to bring a verdict.
b. Agreement in Gender

Pronoun – personal pronoun harus sesuai dalam gender (masculine, feminine, neuter, common) dengan antecedent-nya.
  1. The man has done his duty.
  2. The woman has finished her homework.
  3. The child has finished its duty.
  4. The cat ate its meal.
c. Agreement in Person

Pronoun harus sesuai dalam person -(orang pertama, orang kedua, atau orang ketiga) dengan antecedent-nya.
  1. We are not teachers, but we must teach our children discipline.
  2. Some students study hard because they want to pass the final exam.
  3. When one pays attention, he (or one) learns better.
  4. The leader expects every man to do his duty.
Catatan:
  • Apabila dua antecedent atau lebih, dihubungkan dengan and, maka harus ditunjukkan dengan plural noun.
  1. John and Mary did their work.
  2. The beautiful and the damned have their place in fiction.
  3. Udin and Amir have just mowed their lawn.
  4. The boys and girls asked us to repeat what we'd said to them.
  • Apabila indefinite pronoun digunakan sebagai antecedent, maka pronoun-nya harus sesuai dalam number.
Indefinite pronoun berikut ini adalah singular, maka jika digunakan sebagai antecedent, mereka memerlukan singular pronoun.

another - either - much - one - anybody - everybody - neither - somebody - anyone - everyone - nobody - someone - anything - everything - no one - something - each - it - nothing.
  1. Each of the boys did his home work.
  2. The school will accept anyone if he/she seems worthy
  3. Neither of our products is selling at its best.
  4. Each of us knows his/her social security number.
  5. Someone left his coat in his locker.
  6. One likes to do what he or she can do well
Indefinite pronoun berikut ini adalah plural, maka jika digunakan sebagai antecedent, mereka memerlukan plural pronoun.

both - few - many - others - several
  1. Many people enjoy their vacation in Bali.
  2. Both of the applicants are worthy, at least on their resumes.
  3. Few can remember when they were two years old.
  4. Several found their cars unlocked.
  5. Others found their friend in the Balcon
Indefinite pronoun berikut ini bila digunakan sebagai antecedent, mungkin dapat berarti singular atau plural tergantung pads arti yang dimaksudkan, maka pronoun-nya hares sesuai dengan arti yang dimaksudkan.

all - any - more - most - none - some
  1. Are any of them here today? (plural)
  2. All in the crowd cheered their approval. (plural)
  3. All the money is in its proper place. (singular)
  4. Some of the candy has lost its flavor. (singular)
Apabila collective noun menjadi antecedent, maka ditunjukkan dengan singular pronoun, jika yang dimaksudkan singular, dan ditunjukkan dengan plural noun, jika yang dimaksudkan plural.

audience - couple - family - public - class - crowd - government - jury - committee - group - team - army - dll.
  1. The Jury gave its verdict. (singular)
  2. The Jury gave their verdict. (plural, berarti masing-masing anggota dari tim jury tersebut).
  3. An army marches against its enemy. (singular)
  4. The committee meets for its final session next week. (singular)
  5. The committee are arguing among themselves. (plural)
Catatan:

Dalam American English lebih Bering menggunakan singular verb untuk collective noun tersebut di atas, sedangkan dalam British English sebaliknya.

(AE) The government is planning many changes. (BE) The government are planning many changes.
  • Apabila salah satu antecedent dihubungkan dengan:
either ... or - neither ... nor - or - nor maka:
  • Bila antecedent yang terdekat dengan verb adalah singular, maka pronoun-nya juga singular.
  1. Neither Ali nor Fatimah has just mowed her lawn.
  2. Either my brother or John has taken his exam.
  • Bila antecedent yang terdekat dengan verb adalah plural, maka pronoun-nya juga plural.
  1. Neither Ali nor Fatimah's children have just mowed their lawn.
  2. Either Udin or his sisters will get their wish.
  3. Neither John nor my brothers have taken their exam.
  • Apabila kita ingin menentukan antecedent yang sesungguhnya dalam sebuah kalimat yang ada kata-kata (phrase, appositive atau clause), maka kita tidak usah memperhatikan kata-kata tersebut. Anggaplah phrase atau appositive tersebut tidak ada.
  1. Mary, along with the two others, studied her piano lesson.
  2. Amir, and not his nephews, is on his way here now.
  3. Each of our nearest neighbors has a van in his driveway.
  4. Jalal, our regional director of Wijaya kontraktor, has his office in Yogyakarta.
  • subjek dari relative clause: who, which atau that, dapat berbentuk plural atau singular tergantung pads antecedent-nya.
  1. The people elect their representatives who speak for them in Congress.
  2. Umar is one of my friends who are helping me paint my house.
  3. Umar is the only one of my friends who is helping me paint my house.
  4. Siti Nurbaya is one of the most interesting books that have ever been written.
C. Adjective — Pronoun Agreements

Demonstrative adjectives yang singular (this, that) dan yang plural (these, those) harus sesuai dalam number (jumlah) dengan noun (kata bends) yang mereka jelaskan (batasi).
  1. This dan That adalah singular, maka hanya digunakan bersama dengan singular noun.
  2. These dan Those adalah plural, maka hanya digunakan bersama dengan plural noun.
Contoh:
  1. This type of potato is native to Sumbawa.
  2. These type of potatoes are native to Sumbawa.
  3. Budi never buys this brand of canned goods.

Agree to, Agree with, Agree on

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Kata "Agree" secara lexical diartikan dengan "Setuju". Namun dalam teks-teks Bahasa Inggris, kita sering melihat Agree with, Agree to atau Agree on. Kata ini sering membingungkan sebab semuanya mempunyai arti yang sama, yaitu "Setuju dengan". Tetapi sebenarnya, ketiga kata tersebut berbeda fungsi seperti akan kami jelaskan di bawah ini:

Agree to

Agree to berati setuju dengan saran atau tindakan orang lain.
  1. Russia and Spain agree to Cooperate In Energy Sector.
  2. We agreed to her suggestion.
Agree with

Agree with berarti setuju dengan orang lain, suatu pendapat atau kebijakan.
  1. The copy agrees with the original.
  2. I don’t agree with some of the issues they have raised in the rating rationale.
Agree on

Agree on berarti setuju dengan masalah yang ingin diputuskan, mempunyai perasaan yang sama atas suatu masalah.
  1. Democrat Obama and Republican McCain agree on a range of issues that have divided the parties under Bush.
  2. Major EU states agree on tighter regulation.

Affixes

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Affixes adalah Imbuhan. Imbuhan terdiri dari Awalan (Prefixes), Akhiran (Suffixes) atau campuran antara Prefixes dan Suffixes. Imbuhan-imbuhan ini dapat merubah fungsi suatu kata menjadi kata baru atau kata yang sama dengan fungsi yang berbeda. Untuk lebih jelasnya, di bawah ini akan kami tampilkan beberapa dari Prefixes dan Suffixes:
  • a-1 Not or without.
  • a-2 Towards, of, in, into or at; marking some ongoing process or state; movement onwards or away.
  • -a1 Forming singular words of various types.
  • -a2 The plural of certain nouns of Latin or Greek origin.
  • -a3 Informal terms in spoken English.
  • ab- Off, away, or from.
  • abdomin(o)- The abdomen.
  • -able Able to be.
  • abs- See ab-
  • -ac Forming adjectives and nouns.
  • ac- See ad-
  • -acal See -ac
  • acanth(o)- Spiny or thorny.
  • acar(o)- A mite or tick.
  • -acea Groups of animals.
  • -aceae Families of seed-bearing plants.
  • -acean See -acea
  • -aceous Forming adjectives.
  • acet(o)- Acetic acid or the acetyl group.
  • acid(o)- Acid; sharp or sour.
  • -acious Inclined to, given to, or having as a capacity.
  • acoust(o)- Sound or hearing.
  • acr(o)- A tip, height, or extremity.
  • acryl(o)- Acrylic.
  • actin(o)- A ray or beam.
  • -acusis A condition of the hearing.
  • -acy See -cy
  • ad- Motion or direction to; reduction or change into; addition, increase, or intensification.
  • -ad1 Collective numerals; nymphs.
  • -ad2 Indicating a direction towards some part of the body.
  • -ade Denoting an action, its result, or something associated with it.
  • aden(o)- A gland.
  • adip(o)- Fat or fatty tissues.
  • -ado Forming a variety of words based on Portuguese, Spanish, or Italian originals.
  • adren(o)- The adrenal glands.
  • -ae Forming plurals.
  • -aemia A substance present in the blood, especially in excess.
  • aer(o)- Air or another gas; the atmosphere; aircraft.
  • af- See ad-
  • afore- Before or previously.
  • Afro- Africa; African and �
  • ag- See ad-
  • -age Forming nouns.
  • -agogue Leading or promoting.
  • -agra Pain in some part of the body.
  • agro- Farming; cultivation.
  • -aholic A person excessively fond of something.
  • -aire A person characterized by or linked to the idea in the stem.
  • -akusis See -acusis
  • al- See ad-
  • -al1 Forming adjectives and some nouns.
  • -al2 An aldehyde.
  • alb- White or bright.
  • aldo- An aldehyde.
  • -ales Orders of plants.
  • -algia Pain, usually in a specified part of the body.
  • algo- Pain.
  • -alia A collection or group.
  • -ality See -ity
  • all(o)- Other; different.
  • alumin(o)- Aluminium.
  • -ama See -orama
  • ambi- On both sides; around.
  • amid(o)- The CONH2- group in chemical compounds.
  • amino- The amine group, NH2�.
  • amnio- The amnion.
  • amph(i)- Variously two, both, on both sides, or around.
  • amyl(o)- Starch.
  • -an See -ian
  • an- See a-1, ad-, and ana-
  • -ana Things associated with a person, place, or field of interest.
  • an(a)- Variously up, back, or again.
  • -ance A state or quality; a process or action.
  • anchylo- See ankylo-
  • -and A person or thing to be treated in a specified way.
  • andr(o)- Male or maleness.
  • -androus Maleness.
  • -ane1 Saturated straight-chain (aliphatic) hydrocarbons.
  • -ane2 Forming adjectives.
  • anem(o)- The wind.
  • -aneous See -ous
  • angi(o)- Blood or seed vessels.
  • -angium A container.
  • Anglo- English or British; English or British and �
  • anis(o)- Unequal, asymmetrical, dissimilar.
  • ankylo- Bent or crooked; stiff or fixed.
  • -ant Forming adjectives and nouns.
  • ante- Before or preceding.
  • antero- Nearer the front of the body; forward in time.
  • anth(o)- A flower or flowers.
  • anthrac(o)- Coal or carbon; a carbuncle.
  • anthrop(o)- Human, or of a human being.
  • -anthropy Human, or humankind.
  • ant(i)- Acting against, resisting, or opposing something; the opposite or reverse of something.
  • ap- See ad-
  • apic(o)- A point or apex.
  • apo- Away from; separate from.
  • apr�s- A period following some activity.
  • aqua- Water.
  • ar- See ad-
  • -ar1 Forming adjectives.
  • -ar2 Forming nouns.
  • arachn(o)- A spider or spiders.
  • -arama See -orama
  • arbor(i)- A tree or trees.
  • -arch See -archy
  • arch- Chief; principal; pre-eminent of its kind.
  • archaeo- Ancient or prehistoric times.
  • arche- See arch-
  • -archy Government; rule of a particular type; a chief or ruler.
  • -ard Forming nouns.
  • areo- The planet Mars.
  • argent(o)- Silver.
  • -arian Forming adjectives and corresponding nouns.
  • -arious Connected with; pertaining to.
  • -arium A place or container connected with, or employed for, some purpose.
  • -aroo See -eroo
  • arsen(o)- Arsenic.
  • -art See -ard
  • arteri(o)- An artery.
  • arthr(o)- A joint.
  • -ary1 Forming nouns.
  • -ary2 Forming adjectives.
  • as- See ad-
  • asc(o)- A bag or sac.
  • -ase An enzyme.
  • -asis A disease or other medical condition.
  • -ast A person connected with a pursuit or activity.
  • -aster Inferior; a poor imitation.
  • astr(o)- A star or other celestial body; outer space; star-shaped.
  • at- See ad-
  • -ata See -a2
  • -atable See -ate3
  • -ate1 Forming nouns.
  • -ate2 Forming adjectives.
  • -ate3 Forming verbs.
  • -ateria See -teria
  • ather(o)- An atheroma.
  • -athon An event long in duration, usually for fund-raising purposes.
  • -ati Groups of people.
  • -atic Forming adjectives, and some nouns.
  • -atile Possibility, potential, or ability.
  • -ation An action, or an instance of an action.
  • -ative Characteristic or predisposed.
  • -ator See -or1
  • -atory See -ory1 and -ory2
  • atto- In units of measurement, a factor of 10-18.
  • audi(o)- Hearing or sound.
  • aur(i)- Gold.
  • Austro-1 Austria; Austria and �
  • Austr(o)-2 Australia; Australia and �; southern.
  • aut(o)-1 Self; oneself; by itself.
  • auto-2 An automobile or motor vehicle.
  • aux(o)- Growth or increase.
  • avi- A bird or birds; flight.
  • axo- An axis.
  • az(o)- Nitrogen; the chemical radical -N=N-.
  • -azole See -ole1

Adverbs

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Adverbs (Kata Keterangctau kata tambahan) adalah kata yang menjelaskan bagaimana caranya, di mana tempatnya, kapan waktunya, berapa kali dan sebagainya, suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau suatu peristiwa terjadi.

Fungsi Adverbs:

1. Adverbs menerangkan kata kerja (Verbs)
  • They work hard. (hard menerangkan work)
  • She speaks French fluently.
2. Adverbs menerangkan kata sifat (Adjectives)
  • Mr. Alex is very rich. (very menerangkan rich)
  • This coffee is too hot to drink.
3. Adverbs menerangkan Kata Depan (Prepositions)
  • The cat is sitting almost outside the door. (almost menerangkan outside)
  • I arrived there long before the time.
4. Adverbs menerangkan kata keterangan lainnya (Adverbs)
  • I can swim very well. (very menerangkan well)
  • You worked too hard.
5. Adverbs menerangkan Kata Sambung (Conjunctions)
  • I can see clearly how she killed her mother. (clearly menerangkan how)
  • I arrived at home precisely before the rain fell.
6. Adverbs menerangkan keseluruhan kalimat
  • Yesterday, we saw your boyfriend in the mall.
  • Unfortunately, the boy was killed in the end of the film
PEMBENTUKAN KATA KETERANGAN (ADVERBS)

Ada beberapa cara untuk membentuk Adverbs. Perhatikan berikut ini:

1. Dengan menambahkan "ly" pada akhir Adjectives.
  • beautiful - beautifully
  • smart - smartly
  • serious - seriously
  • slow - slowly
  • dll
2. Ada juga beberapa Adverbs yang memiliki bentuk yang sama dengan Adjectives-nya.
  • fast - fast
  • hard - hard
  • free - free
  • dll
3. Ada juga 1 kata sifat yang memiliki bentuk yang berbeda pada Adverbs-nya
  • good - well
ADVERBS dibagi dalam 3 golongan, yaitu:
  1. Simple Adverbs
  2. Interrogative Adverbs
  3. Relative Adverbs
PENJELASAN

1. Simple Adverbs

Golongan ini terbagi lagi menjadi:

1). Adverbs of Time (Keterangan Waktu)

Kata keterangan waktu yang sering dipakai adalah: now, then, ago, since, before, already, soon, immediately, instantly, presently, late, lately, early, afterwards, today, yesterday, tomorrow, dsb..
  • Press the button now.
  • I have never been.
  • I tell him daily.
2). Adverbs of Place (Keterangan Tempat)

Adverbs ya ng sering dipakai adalah: here, there, hence, thence, above, below, beside, in, on, inside, outside, far, near, dll.
  • Daisies grow everywhere.
  • I did not put it there.
3). Adverbs of Number (Kata Keterangan Bilangan)

Adverbs yang sering dipakai adalah: once, twice, thrice, again, firstly, never, often, sometimes, dll
  • I go to school five times a week
  • You have to take the medicine twice a day.
4). Adverbs of Manner, Quality, State (Kata Keterangan Cara, Kualitas, dan Keadaan)

Adverbs yang sering dipakai adalah: well, seriously, probably, thus, so, dll.
  • I can finish the work quickly
  • He ran fast
5). Adverbs of Quantity, Extent, Degree (Kata Keterangan Kuantitas, Taraf, Tingkat)

Adverbs yang sering dipakai adalah much, too, enough, very, somewhat, rather, completely, dll.
  • You are quite right
  • You are young enough to be an acctress.
2. Interrogative Adverbs

Adverbs jenis ini terbagi lagi menjadi:

1). Adverbs of Time
  • When did you came?
  • How long will you stay at the hotel?
2). Adverbs of Place
  • Where do you live?
  • Whence did you come?
3). Adverbs of Number
  • How often do you come to her house?
4). Adverbs of Manner, Quality, State
  • How did you do the homework?
  • How are you today?
5). Adverbs of Quantity, Extent, Degree
  • How far was the news true?
6). Adverbs of Cause and Effect
  • Why did he leave?
  • Wherefore did she weep?
3. Relative Adverbs

Adverbs jenis ini berhubungan dengan:

1). Antecedent (Kata yang mendahului) Dinyatakan
  • This is the hotel where she stays at
  • let me know the time when you will leave for London
2). Antecedent Dimengerti
  • This is where she stays at
  • let me know when you will leave for London.
COMPARATIVE DEGREES OF ADVERBS

1. Adverb yang terdiri dari 1 suku kata, maka tambahkan "er" untuk tingkat lebih, dan "est" untuk tingkat paling
Adverbs
Tingkat Lebih
Tingkat Paling
fast faster fastest
hard harder hardest
late later latest, last
soon sooner soonest
2. Adverbs yang terdiri lebih dari 1 suku kata, maka tambahkan "more" untuk tingkat lebih, dan "most" untuk tingkat "paling"
Adverbs
Tingkat Lebih
Tingkat Paling
seriously more seriously most seriously
successfully more successfully most successfully
loudly more loudly most loudly
beautifully more beautifully most beautiful
3. Adverbs yang tidak beraturan, perhatikan bentuk perbandingannya berikut ini:
Adverbs
Tingkat Lebih
Tingkat Paling
well better best
far farther, further farthest, furthest
much more most
little less least
Contoh:
  • William belajar Bahasa Inggris lebih serius daripada abangnya.
    (William studies English more seriously than his brother does)
    (BUKAN: more serious, sebab, kita sudah mendapati kata "study", maka kita harus menggunakan Adverbs sesudahnya, bukan Adjectives)
  • William studies English harder than his brother does.
CARA PEMAKAIAN ADVERBS

Ada 2 cara pemakaian Adverbs, yaitu:

1. Attributive

Adverbs dipakai secara atributif, jika Adverbs menerangkan katanya secara biasa, yaitu jika Adverbs diletakkan sedekat mungkin di depannya atau di belakangnya.
  • He shouted loudly
  • He is quite right
  • He is entirely wrong
2. Predicative

Adverbs dipakai sebagai predicative jika Adverbs dijadikan bagian dari predikat sebuah kalimat, atau jelasnya, jika ia dipakai sebagai komplemen dari kata kerja yang mendahuluinya.
  • The struggle is over
  • She will be better soon
  • The two girls are much alike
  • My new book is out
  • She is well today
LETAK ADVERBS DI DALAM KALIMAT

Penempatan kata keterangan dalam suatu kalimat pads umumnya menggunakan pola sebagai berikut:

1. Dalam keadaan biasa, kata keterangan disusun dalam urutan Adverb of Place or Direction, Adverb of Frequency, Adverb of Time. (A. of P or D, A. of F, A. of T).

Contoh:
  • I have been to London several time this year.
  • He walked round the park twice before supper.
  • She gave lectures at the college three days a week last year.
2. Dalam keadaan biasa, susunan kata keterangan adalah Adverb of Manner, Place, and Time.

Contoh:
  • Arifah studies seriously at school every day.
  • Ali ate food greedily at home this morning.
  • My elder brother works hard at the office yesterday.
3. Adverb of Frequency berada setelah kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verb atau modal)), bila dalam kalimat ada kata kerja bantu-nya.

Contoh:
  • I have almost finished working.
  • They didn't even try to help.
  • She has justfinished breakfast.
  • The post has already come.
4. Bila terdapat 'verb of movement' atau kata kerja yang menunjukkan gerak/ perpindahan, maka di belakangnya langsung diikuti 'adverb of place' yang seolah-olah berfungsi sebagai objek tujuan. Kata kerja tersebut misalnya: go, move, visit, come, run, walk, jump, travel dan lain sebagainya.

Contoh:
  • We will go to Bali by plane.
  • She drives her car to the village slowly.
  • The finally arrived home after spending the whole night on the road. etc.
Bila dalam sebuah kalimat terdapat beberapa keterangan yang sejenis, maka kata keterangan tersebut disusun mulai dari urutan yang terkecil. Namun pola-pola tersebut di atas tetap dipakai. (nomor 1-4).

Contoh:
  • He visited the hospital, in J1. Jend. Sudirman, on foot, reluctantly, at 9 o'clock, last Sunday.
Beberapa jenis adverbs tertentu dapat menempati (diletakkan pada) tiga posisi dalam suatu kalimat, di awal, di tengah, atau di akhir kalimat, namun ada pula beberapa adverb yang hanya dapat menempati pads satu atau dua posisi tertentu dalam suatu kalimat.

Adverb Clause

Posted by Rama Van Basten under

Adverbial Clause adalah Clause (anak kalimat) yang berfungsi sebagai Adverb, yakni menerangkan kata kerja.

Adverbial Clause biasanya diklasifikasikan berdasarkan "arti/maksud" dari Conjunction (kata penghubung yang mendahuluinya).

Jenis-jenis Adverbial Clause antara lain:

1. Clause of Time

Clause yang menunjukkan waktu. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti after, before, no sooner, while, as, dll.

Contoh:

  • Shut the door before you go out.
  • You may begin when(ever) you are ready.
  • While he was walking home, he saw an accident.
  • By the time I arrive, Alex will have left.
  • No sooner had she entered than he gave an order.

2. Clause of Place

Clause yang menunjukkan tempat. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction seperti where, nowhere, anywhere, wherever, dll.

Contoh:

  • They sat down wherever they could find empty seats
  • The guard stood where he was positioned.
  • Where there is a will, there is a way.
  • Where there is poverty, there we find discontent and unrest.
  • Go where you like.

3. Clause of Contrast (or Concession)

Clause yang menunjukkan adanya pertentangan antara dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang saling berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti although, though, even though, whereas, even if, in spite of, as the time, dll.

Contoh:

  • As the time you were sleeping, we were working hard.
  • Mary wanted to stop, whereas I wanted to go on.
  • Although it is late, we'll stay a little longer.
  • He is very friendly, even if he is a clever student.

4. Clause of Manner

Clause yang menunjukkan cars bagaimana suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau peristiwa terjadi. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunction (kata penghubung) seperti as, how, like, in that, dll.

Contoh:

  • He did as I told him.
  • You may finish it how you like.
  • They may beat us again, like they did in 1978.

5. Clause of Purpose and Result

Clause yang menunjukkan hubungan maksud/tujuan dan hasil. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan kata penghubung seperti (in order) that, so that, in the hope that, to the end that, lest, in case, dll.

Contoh:

  • They went to the movie early (in order) to find the best seats.
  • She bought a book so (that) she could learn English
  • He is saving his money so that he may take a long vacation.
  • I am working night and day in the hope that I can finish this book soon.

6. Clause of Cause and Effect

Clause yang menunjukkan hubungan sebab dan akibat. Ada beberapa pola membentuk Clause jenis ini. Perhatikan baik-baik.

Contoh:

  • Ryan ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record.
  • It was so cold yesterday that I didn't want to swim.
  • The soup tastes so good that everyone will ask for more.
  • The student had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class.

Contoh:

  • The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own baseball team.
  • I had so few job offers that it wasn't difficult to select one.

Contoh:

  • He has invested so much money in the project that he cannot abandon it now.
  • The grass received so little water that it turned brown in the heat.

Contoh:

  • It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors. ATAU It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors.
  • It was such an interesting book that he couldn't put it down. ATAU It was so interesting a book that he couldn't put it down.

Contoh:

  • She has such exceptional abilities that everyone is jealous of her.
  • They are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one.
  • Perry has had such bad luck that he's decided not to gamble.
  • This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.

Di samping itu, untuk mengungkapkan hubungan cause and effect (sebab dan akibat) dapat digunakan pola lain, yaitu:

1. Menggunakan Preposition (kata depan) seperti because of, due to, due to the fact that, dll

Contoh:

  • Because of the cold weather, we stayed home. (=We stayed home because of the cold weather)
  • Due to the cold weather, we stayed home. (=We stayed home due to the cold weather)
  • Due to the fact that the weather was cold, we stayed home. (=We stayed home due to the fact that the weather was cold)

2. Menggunakan kata penghubung (conjunction) seperti because, since, now, that, as, as long as, inasmuch as

Contoh:

  • Because he was sleepy, he went to bed.
  • Since he's not interested in classical music, he decided not to go to the concert.
  • As she had nothing in particular to do, she called up a friend and asked her if she wanted to take in a movie.
  • Inasmuch as the two government leaders could not reach an agreement, the possibilities for peace are still remote.

3. Menggunakan transition words seperti therefore, consequently.

Contoh:

  • Alex failed the test because he didn't study.
  • Alex didn't study. Therefore, he failed the test.
  • Alex didn't study. Consequently, he failed the test.

Catatan:


Beberapa Adverb Clause dapat diubah menjadi Modifying Phrases dengan cara:

1) Menghilangkan subjek dari dependent Clause dan verb (be).

Contoh:

a. ADVERB CLAUSE : While I was walking to class, I ran into an old friend.

b. MODIFYING PHRASE : While walking to class, I ran into an old friend.

2) Jika dalam Adverb Clause tidak ada be, hilangkanlah subjek dan ubahlah verb dalam Adverb Clause itu menjadi bentuk -ing.

Contoh:

a. ADVERB CLAUSE : Before I left for work, I ate breakfast.

b. MODIFYING PHRASE : Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.

Adverb Clause dapat diubah menjadi Modifying Phrase jika subjek dari adverb Clause dan subjek dari main Clause sama.

Contoh:

1. DAPAT DIRUBAH

  • While I was sitting in class, I fell asleep MENJADI While sitting in class, I fell asleep.
  • While Ann was sitting in class, she fell asleep MENJADI While sitting in class, Ann fell asleep.
  • Since Mary came to this country, she has made many friends MENJADI Since coming to this country, Mary has made many friends.

2. TIDAK DAPAT DIRUBAH

  • While the teacher was lecturing to the class, I fell asleep.
  • While we were walking home, a frog hopped across the road in front of us.

7. Clause of Condition

Clause yang menunjukkan adanya persyaratan antara dua kejadian (peristiwa) yang berhubungan. Biasanya dibuat dengan menggunakan conjunctions seperti if, even if, unless, in the even that, or in even that, in case, provided (that), providing (that), on condition that, if only, suppose (that), supposing (that), dll.

Contoh:

  • If I see him, I will invite him to the party tomorrow.
  • She would forgive her husband everything, if only he would come back to her.
  • Suppose (that) your house burns down, do you have enough insurance to cover such a loss.
  • In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once.
  • The company will agree to arbitration on condition (that) the strike is called off at once.
  • We should be able to do the job for you quickly, provided (that) you give us all the necessary information.

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