Adverbs

Posted by Rama Van Basten under
Adverbs (Kata Keterangctau kata tambahan) adalah kata yang menjelaskan bagaimana caranya, di mana tempatnya, kapan waktunya, berapa kali dan sebagainya, suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau suatu peristiwa terjadi.

Fungsi Adverbs:

1. Adverbs menerangkan kata kerja (Verbs)
  • They work hard. (hard menerangkan work)
  • She speaks French fluently.
2. Adverbs menerangkan kata sifat (Adjectives)
  • Mr. Alex is very rich. (very menerangkan rich)
  • This coffee is too hot to drink.
3. Adverbs menerangkan Kata Depan (Prepositions)
  • The cat is sitting almost outside the door. (almost menerangkan outside)
  • I arrived there long before the time.
4. Adverbs menerangkan kata keterangan lainnya (Adverbs)
  • I can swim very well. (very menerangkan well)
  • You worked too hard.
5. Adverbs menerangkan Kata Sambung (Conjunctions)
  • I can see clearly how she killed her mother. (clearly menerangkan how)
  • I arrived at home precisely before the rain fell.
6. Adverbs menerangkan keseluruhan kalimat
  • Yesterday, we saw your boyfriend in the mall.
  • Unfortunately, the boy was killed in the end of the film
PEMBENTUKAN KATA KETERANGAN (ADVERBS)

Ada beberapa cara untuk membentuk Adverbs. Perhatikan berikut ini:

1. Dengan menambahkan "ly" pada akhir Adjectives.
  • beautiful - beautifully
  • smart - smartly
  • serious - seriously
  • slow - slowly
  • dll
2. Ada juga beberapa Adverbs yang memiliki bentuk yang sama dengan Adjectives-nya.
  • fast - fast
  • hard - hard
  • free - free
  • dll
3. Ada juga 1 kata sifat yang memiliki bentuk yang berbeda pada Adverbs-nya
  • good - well
ADVERBS dibagi dalam 3 golongan, yaitu:
  1. Simple Adverbs
  2. Interrogative Adverbs
  3. Relative Adverbs
PENJELASAN

1. Simple Adverbs

Golongan ini terbagi lagi menjadi:

1). Adverbs of Time (Keterangan Waktu)

Kata keterangan waktu yang sering dipakai adalah: now, then, ago, since, before, already, soon, immediately, instantly, presently, late, lately, early, afterwards, today, yesterday, tomorrow, dsb..
  • Press the button now.
  • I have never been.
  • I tell him daily.
2). Adverbs of Place (Keterangan Tempat)

Adverbs ya ng sering dipakai adalah: here, there, hence, thence, above, below, beside, in, on, inside, outside, far, near, dll.
  • Daisies grow everywhere.
  • I did not put it there.
3). Adverbs of Number (Kata Keterangan Bilangan)

Adverbs yang sering dipakai adalah: once, twice, thrice, again, firstly, never, often, sometimes, dll
  • I go to school five times a week
  • You have to take the medicine twice a day.
4). Adverbs of Manner, Quality, State (Kata Keterangan Cara, Kualitas, dan Keadaan)

Adverbs yang sering dipakai adalah: well, seriously, probably, thus, so, dll.
  • I can finish the work quickly
  • He ran fast
5). Adverbs of Quantity, Extent, Degree (Kata Keterangan Kuantitas, Taraf, Tingkat)

Adverbs yang sering dipakai adalah much, too, enough, very, somewhat, rather, completely, dll.
  • You are quite right
  • You are young enough to be an acctress.
2. Interrogative Adverbs

Adverbs jenis ini terbagi lagi menjadi:

1). Adverbs of Time
  • When did you came?
  • How long will you stay at the hotel?
2). Adverbs of Place
  • Where do you live?
  • Whence did you come?
3). Adverbs of Number
  • How often do you come to her house?
4). Adverbs of Manner, Quality, State
  • How did you do the homework?
  • How are you today?
5). Adverbs of Quantity, Extent, Degree
  • How far was the news true?
6). Adverbs of Cause and Effect
  • Why did he leave?
  • Wherefore did she weep?
3. Relative Adverbs

Adverbs jenis ini berhubungan dengan:

1). Antecedent (Kata yang mendahului) Dinyatakan
  • This is the hotel where she stays at
  • let me know the time when you will leave for London
2). Antecedent Dimengerti
  • This is where she stays at
  • let me know when you will leave for London.
COMPARATIVE DEGREES OF ADVERBS

1. Adverb yang terdiri dari 1 suku kata, maka tambahkan "er" untuk tingkat lebih, dan "est" untuk tingkat paling
Adverbs
Tingkat Lebih
Tingkat Paling
fast faster fastest
hard harder hardest
late later latest, last
soon sooner soonest
2. Adverbs yang terdiri lebih dari 1 suku kata, maka tambahkan "more" untuk tingkat lebih, dan "most" untuk tingkat "paling"
Adverbs
Tingkat Lebih
Tingkat Paling
seriously more seriously most seriously
successfully more successfully most successfully
loudly more loudly most loudly
beautifully more beautifully most beautiful
3. Adverbs yang tidak beraturan, perhatikan bentuk perbandingannya berikut ini:
Adverbs
Tingkat Lebih
Tingkat Paling
well better best
far farther, further farthest, furthest
much more most
little less least
Contoh:
  • William belajar Bahasa Inggris lebih serius daripada abangnya.
    (William studies English more seriously than his brother does)
    (BUKAN: more serious, sebab, kita sudah mendapati kata "study", maka kita harus menggunakan Adverbs sesudahnya, bukan Adjectives)
  • William studies English harder than his brother does.
CARA PEMAKAIAN ADVERBS

Ada 2 cara pemakaian Adverbs, yaitu:

1. Attributive

Adverbs dipakai secara atributif, jika Adverbs menerangkan katanya secara biasa, yaitu jika Adverbs diletakkan sedekat mungkin di depannya atau di belakangnya.
  • He shouted loudly
  • He is quite right
  • He is entirely wrong
2. Predicative

Adverbs dipakai sebagai predicative jika Adverbs dijadikan bagian dari predikat sebuah kalimat, atau jelasnya, jika ia dipakai sebagai komplemen dari kata kerja yang mendahuluinya.
  • The struggle is over
  • She will be better soon
  • The two girls are much alike
  • My new book is out
  • She is well today
LETAK ADVERBS DI DALAM KALIMAT

Penempatan kata keterangan dalam suatu kalimat pads umumnya menggunakan pola sebagai berikut:

1. Dalam keadaan biasa, kata keterangan disusun dalam urutan Adverb of Place or Direction, Adverb of Frequency, Adverb of Time. (A. of P or D, A. of F, A. of T).

Contoh:
  • I have been to London several time this year.
  • He walked round the park twice before supper.
  • She gave lectures at the college three days a week last year.
2. Dalam keadaan biasa, susunan kata keterangan adalah Adverb of Manner, Place, and Time.

Contoh:
  • Arifah studies seriously at school every day.
  • Ali ate food greedily at home this morning.
  • My elder brother works hard at the office yesterday.
3. Adverb of Frequency berada setelah kata kerja bantu (auxiliary verb atau modal)), bila dalam kalimat ada kata kerja bantu-nya.

Contoh:
  • I have almost finished working.
  • They didn't even try to help.
  • She has justfinished breakfast.
  • The post has already come.
4. Bila terdapat 'verb of movement' atau kata kerja yang menunjukkan gerak/ perpindahan, maka di belakangnya langsung diikuti 'adverb of place' yang seolah-olah berfungsi sebagai objek tujuan. Kata kerja tersebut misalnya: go, move, visit, come, run, walk, jump, travel dan lain sebagainya.

Contoh:
  • We will go to Bali by plane.
  • She drives her car to the village slowly.
  • The finally arrived home after spending the whole night on the road. etc.
Bila dalam sebuah kalimat terdapat beberapa keterangan yang sejenis, maka kata keterangan tersebut disusun mulai dari urutan yang terkecil. Namun pola-pola tersebut di atas tetap dipakai. (nomor 1-4).

Contoh:
  • He visited the hospital, in J1. Jend. Sudirman, on foot, reluctantly, at 9 o'clock, last Sunday.
Beberapa jenis adverbs tertentu dapat menempati (diletakkan pada) tiga posisi dalam suatu kalimat, di awal, di tengah, atau di akhir kalimat, namun ada pula beberapa adverb yang hanya dapat menempati pads satu atau dua posisi tertentu dalam suatu kalimat.

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